Wednesday, May 23, 2012

The Role of Information Technology in the Society

A Term Paper by Ma. Eula Espanola




Information Technology connects the world and makes everything possible.



INTRODUCTION:



The dawn of a new age- the Information age-glows before us with the promise of a new ways of thinking, living and working. Amount t of information in the world is said to be doubling of every six to seven years. Can we keep up? We can but not without an understanding of how computers work and the ability to control for our own purposes.

Computers have moved into every nook and cranny of our daily lives. Where or not you personally know anything about it, you invoke computers when you make a bank withdrawal, buy groceries at the supermarket and even drive your car. But you will have a computer at your personal disposal. The answer today is “probably”. Almost any career in your future will involve a computer in some way.

We have heard a lot about bridges to the next century. Computer talk the same way, they want to build bridges to technology that users will not be afraid to cross. In fact, a recurring theme is that computers will be more accessible if they disappear. Not disappear altogether, of course, just be transferred from today’s duty, putty- colored boxes into computers so on obtrusive that they are not noticed. An example from today’s technology is the computer that manages a car’s antilock braking system without even knowing that a computer is part of the action. The future is already in sight. Soon workers will wonder how today’s mute passive boxes were ever called computers. Already some personal computers or terminals looked up to bigger machines, can talk, listen, and display live images. No computers are an island .They can call can one another send faxes, mail and messages. People who cannot leave along- they may even wear them one day. It seems to be the fate of the computers to move into the background –and to be everywhere.


BODY:

Information technology is technology that merges computers and high speed communications links. The fusion of computers and communications technologies is producing “technological convergence”. The technological merger has several industries through various devices that exchange information in the electronic format used by computers. The industries include computers, communications entertainment, mass media and other fields of information.

The essence of all revolutions, stated philosopher Hannah Arendt, is a start of new story in human experience. For us, the new story may be said to begun in 1991. In that year, according to the one who reported “companies for the first time spent more on computing and communications done on industrial mining farm and construction”. It adds:” InfoTech is now a vital as the air we breathe”. “InfoTech” - information technology. The arrival of information technology having a powerful consequences.

In the recent past, it was not possible to use your television set as a computer or to use as personal computer to watch broadcast TV programs now, however, technologies of television or computer are coming together. It means that, for the common electronic base, information can be communicated in all the ways we want, to receive. These include the familiar media of newspapers, photograph, films, recording, radio and television. However, it can also can be communicated through newer technologies satellite, fiber-optic cable, cellular phone, fox machines, or compact disk for example more important is time goes on the same information may be exchanged among many kinds of equipment, using the language of computers.

Such us:

· The increased need for continuous learning

· Adapting to less well – defined as an information worker”

· The stopped - pace of change

· Exposure to relatively unregulated technical and social information from other cultures via global networks.

Technological convergence is derived from a combination of two recent technologies- computers and communications.

A computers is a programmable, multi use machine that accepts data – raw facts and figures - and processes or manipulates, it into information we can use, such as summaries or totals. Its purpose is to speed up problem solving, and increase productivity.

Communications or telecommunications, technology consists of electromagnetic devices and systems for communicating long distances. The principal examples are telephone, radio, television and cable.

Computer technology and communications technology was developed independently , like rails in a railroad track that never merge. Since then, however, they have gradually fused together, producing a new information environment.

People, data or information, and communications are some common elements of computer and communication system.

People are the most important part and the beneficiaries of a computer and communications system. Professionals and end-users are the common person who uses information technology. People can analyze, develop and improve computer systems. Their assessment needs sometimes faulty, their emotions may also affect their performance, and their perceptions can be too slow. And this can also complicate the operation of a system.

People of all levels and skills, from novices to programmers, are the users and operators of the system. The whole point of the system, of course, is to benefit people.

Though used loosely all the time, the word “data” has some precise and distinct meanings.

Data can be considered as the raw material. Whether in paper, electronic, or other form which is processed by the computer. In other words, data consists of the raw facts and figures that are processed into information.

Communications is defined as the electronic transfer of data from one place to another. Communication become digital, we will see a variety of suppliers, using wired of wireless connections, providing data in digital form: telephone companies, cable-TV services, news and information services, movie and television archives, interactive shopping channels, video catalogs, and more.

Communications or telecommunications has had three important developments. They are better communications channels, better networks, and better sending and receiving devices.

As mentioned, data may be sent by wired or wireless connections. Even more interesting has been the expansion of wireless communication. Now, we have may more kinds of two-way radio, cellular telephone, and paging devices than we had in the past years.

When we heard the word “network”, many of us think of a broadcast network, a group of radio or television broadcasting stations that cut costs by airing the same programs. Here, however, we are concerned with communications networks, which connect one or more telephones or computers or associated devices. Communications networks are crucial to technological convergence, for they allow information to be exchanged electronically.

A communications network may be large or small, private or public, wired or wireless or both. In addition, smaller networks may be connected to large once. For instance, a Local Area Network (LAN) may be used to connect users located near one another, as in the same building.

Part of the excitement about telecommunications in the last decade or so has been the development of new devices or gadgets for sending and receiving information. Two examples are the cellular phone and the fax machine.

You may still hear the sounds of late-night typing in a college residence hall. However, it’s certainly not the smart way to work anymore. Indeed, coping with a typewriter actually detracts from learning. You’re worrying about mistakes and avoiding retyping a whole paper rather than concentrating on educational principles. Using computer to write your papers not only makes life easier, it also opens up new areas of freedom and knowledge and helps prepare you for the future.

Thus, students who come to college with a personal computer as part of their luggage are certainly ahead of the game. If you don’t have one, however, there are other options.

College students use more of the Internet or the World Wide Web for home works and research studies. Most commonly we need online information services. Online information services provide computer users access among other things, bulletin boards; research and news resources; games, entertainment, and clubs; and travel and shopping services.

Intellectual property consists of the products of the human mind. Such property can be protected by copyright, the exclusive legal right that prohibits copying without the permission Internet are useful, especially to college students for research, but then sometimes students forget to use their own knowledge, they just copy and paste things in the computer.

Plagiarism is the expropriation of another writer’s text, findings, or interpretations and presenting it as one’s own. Information technology puts a new face on plagiarism. Info tech helps but it has it’s own limitation most especially to students or people who has no enough knowledge on the thins around them.

Information Technology has had some adverse effects on the environment, including energy consumption and environmental pollution.

As the upgrade merry-go-round continues, as it has since the birth of the computer industry, more and more people are joining the Digital Revolution.

Everyone hopes, of course, that the principal effects of this growth will be beneficial. But you need not be anti-technology to wonder just what negative impact computerization will have. How, for instance, will it affect the environment energy consumption and environmental pollution.

Communities like to see computer manufacturers move to their areas because they are viewed as being nonpolluting. Is this true? Actually, in the past, chemicals used to manufacture semiconductors polluted air, soil and ground water. Today, however, computer makers are literally cleaning up their act.

Smallness in TVs, phones, radios, camcorders, CD players, and computers is now largely taken for granted. In the 1980s portability, or mobility, meant trading off computing power and convenience in return for smaller size and weight. Today, however, we are getting close to the point where we don’t have to give up anything. As a result, experts predict that small, powerful, wireless personal electronic devices will soon transform our lives far more than the personal computer has done so far.

By the end of the decade, expert say that the breed of portable electronics will transform our lives more than the personal computer did during the 1980s. For the truth is that the personal computer didn’t turn out to be personal. It stayed put while its users moved around.

By contrast, the new generation of machines will be truly personal computers, designed for our mobile lives. We will view office video presentations or the homeward train ride, and reply to electronic mail during boring movies on television.

Portability, clearly, will profoundly change the way we live and work, say Richard Shaffer, who writes a newsletter about high-tech developments. “People will soon be able to structure their work around their lives,” he predicts, rather than the reverse.”


CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, we should all be considered about the future because we will have to spend the rest of our lives there.

The future was rapidly becoming present. Technology changes our life. The revolution of technological age system and industries has many names.

The Digital Age, the Information Age, the Age of Convergence., the Interactive Revolution, the Multimedia Revolution, the Information superhighway or “Infobahn” or I-way or Data way.

Whatever it’s called, the revolution is happening in all parts of our society and in all parts of the world, and it’s consequence will revolve throughout our lifetime.

Computer pioneer John Van Neumann once said that the computer should not be called the “computer” but rather the “all-purpose machine”. After all, he pointed out, it is not just a gadget for doing calculations. The most striking thing about it is that it can be put to any number of uses.

More than ever, we are now seeing just how true that is.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.) International Student Edition COMPUTERS tools for an Information Age “H.L Capron”
2.) Using Information Technology A practical Introduction to Computers and Communication “Williams Sawyer Hutchinson”
3.) Discovering Computers Thomson Asian Editor “Shelly Cashman Vermaat”




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Poverty in the Philippines

A Term Paper by Leonie Patriarca


Poverty's victim: Children born in an impoverish society suffers more than anyone else.



I.                   INTRODUCTION

God created us to become his good servants and prophets. He gave us knowledge and ability to use in daily life. For how many decades past, the lifestyle of the people change. They become lazy and abusive of what He gives to them. Until the situation turns into worst problem called poverty.
            Poverty is a big problem of each poor. It is the shortage of the basic needs of the people in a state. According to Jose V. Romero Jr. writer of Manila Times,” poverty is the biggest challenge of governing in planning and development.” It can bring many effects which it can harm to our  society.
            Common effects of poverty like insufficient foods and nutrients , unemployment, lack of education and increasing of crime rates are the problems facing our government nowadays . it becomes the big revelation  in Malaca├▒ang  especially  if we back in the time of Arroyo Administration. Many Filipino’s can’t afford to buy nutrition food. In many own view we all suffer in effects of poverty. But  why most of us cursing our political leaders in this kind of problem? It is true that they are the reason why our country is not progressive? Or we the Filipino’s who are lazy?
            There are” characteristics of a typical poor income Filipino’s household” according to Jose V. Romero Jr. One of this is “having a larger than average of family size”. In this situation the parents can’t sustain well the basic needs of their children. They can’t easily earn for the future of their sons and daughter. Their salaries is enough only for their food, electricity and water bill. Their children can’t continuously study in school to gain knowledge because of financial problem. Sometimes other families can’t eat malnourish and always get sick.
            Most poor minors in Philippines join in robbery gang, snatching, and pick pocketing to get thousands of monies in easy way. Though this, they can buy all the things they want by drugs, they are independent to do such worst crime like killing innocents. That’s why the crime rates in our country is increasing year on year.
            Poverty here in our country are mostly happened in city areas. People lived in squatters and composed of many children. They are surrounded with garbage’s and near from dumpsites. The life of each family is not stable because of situation. In my opinion, they live miserable because they are facing such problems that until now, it has no solution. Children suffer in hungriness because their parents can’t give enough budgets for their food. Thus their body is affected because they are not eating nutritious food that need by the body. They usually get sick and if they did not admit to the doctor, there is possibility that the sick person will die.

Caught in between. A man cooks food between the railways in a poor side of the country.

II.                BODY

            The Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary, Teofisto Guinana Jr. delivered at United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development 2002 in Monterrey, Mexico about “the challenge of poverty” here in Philippines. According to his deliberation which I’ve read in Manila Standard “Our land Is rich but the people are poor. Our advance to relative progress was disrupted by the financial crisis in July 1997. More than 30 million have fallen below the threshold of poverty”.
            Due to this uncontrollable poverty there are a lot of Filipino people who don’t have a job. This common effect of poverty is called unemployment.
            Unemployment described as “involuntary idleness on the part of those who have failed to find employment or who have lost their latest job but are able to work and are looking for work”. This definition is according to Dr. Gregorio S. Miranda, author of the book titled Introductory Economics.
            There are “effect of unemployment “which I’ve read in the book titled contemporary social problems and causes which it is authored by Dr. Custodioso A. Sanchez. According to her “ the unemployment  problem is of gave concern because of the  resulting poverty that afflicts the people . physical as well as mental weakness result from malnutrition which appears to be related to poverty and is an accompanying syndrome of unemployment. Apart from the physical deprivation unemployment affords, its morale-destroying effects in the form of hopelessness, family discord and the like becomes inevitable”,
            This kind of problems relates to my neighborhood, they are seven children in their family plus their grandmother. Their parents are both died because of an incident. Since their mom and dad gone, they live like a miserable dog. The eldest daughter is taking care her younger brothers and sisters. Next to her id the eldest son. On his very young age (15 Years old), he decided to become a slave by the others for the sake of his family. He earned   150 pesos to 220 a day. But this kind of job he enters is temporary only. Sometimes, he can’t work for a weeks or months. Thus they suffer in hungriness.  Their grandmother can’t help them to sustain their basic needs because she is too old to work. The eldest sister tried to find permanent job or ever temporary in such restaurants  and fast foods , but she never hired by the manager. For the reason that she is not a high school graduate and she is too young.
            Parents and other graduated students are mostly go abroad. They go to progressive countries to earn more. They left their love one’s to give financial for daily expenses. They will do everything even though that love one’s to give financial for daily expenses. They   do everything even though that their families far from them. For parents, they left their children to their relatives because of poor situation. They have to work both to provide the needs of their family. As a result the child becomes dependent. They are neglected and lack of care and guidance. Their parents work hard for them to provide needs especially in school. But others sons and daughters especially teenagers are prefer to be with their friends instead that they studying. We can found them in disco houses and bars. Some of them join in fraternities and sororities or gang. So, they are influence by their friends through smoking, drinking alcohol and the most is by using drugs.
            Because of these, another problem will be encountered. And it is illiteracy.
            Illiteracy is one of the common effects of poverty. It is the lack ability, knowing and understanding of a person. A man who is illiterate can’t easily socialize to others. They have a self-conscious of they had on their selves.
            Illiteracy here in our country is by large and by large. More and more Filipino students can’t study or can’t afford to their miscellaneous.  Their parents can’t send them in school because of priority expenses such as food, water, and electric bill. The department of education or DEPED surveys that “ the children aged age 7 to 12 who enrolled in public and private elementary school are dropped from 96.95 percent in year 1999-2000 to 83.22 percent in year 2006-2007. In secondary level, students aged 13 to 16 in year 2006-2007 dropped to 58.59 percent from 64.43 percent in year 1999-2000”.
            In fact, our local government together with Department of Education joins forces to help poor and illiterate Filipinos. They do a big responsibility to make their people as a good and educated. They have a scholarship for deserving students. But many Filipinos students didn’t grab the opportunity. They pressure their selves in other things that can make them happy.
            As a result, there some crimes happened here in Philippines brought by illiterate children or even illiterate teenagers. They do not know if what’s right and wrong. They are against in the rules of our government that made for peace. Also, they are lack of knowledge to use for their selves.
            In manila city for example, an elementary school offers a 100 percent scholarship in next school year. It is available for grade three students who have an entrance exam and if the students who wants to avail the scholarship even thought their average is 90 below? Those students who didn’t pass the exam? They have a chance to continue studying in next year? Thus the number of illiterate is increase. Because their parents can’t sustain miscellaneous free or even their basic needs. Their children will grow illiterate and easily influence brought by their friends on its society.
            If a man will aged 18 up and he is illiterate, there a possibility that he will going decide to find a job. But it is hard to him in that decision because it is understood that he is illiterate. So he can’t earn a thousand of money to survive his self in poverty. It is future will become miserable especially if he reach the aged of 60 up. Because no a days, a lot of companies required that all applicants are college graduate. They didn’t allow even college students. And even a university graduate is hard in finding jobs.
            Illiteracy as l read in newspaper is the reason why most Filipinos are jobless. Many children can’t read well and write. Also, people cursing other schools that they are the reason because they didn’t give opportunities to those students who wants to learn.
            Some illiterate children are come from abusive family. They were maltreated by their parents through forcing them to work. Then, their full earnings are usually got by their parents and use in self-interest. Also, abandoned children are one of the reasons why the number of illiterate children increases. Their family hates and dislikes them. After that they were abandoned, they go to other places to seek food. They are mostly found in streets, overpass, and plaza or outside the malls and fast-food.
            Involuntary prostitution is one of the effects of illiteracy. They are lack interest in studying, but they are the victims especially the teenagers because do not know from the start that the person recruits them has a bad intention. Sadly, others are hooked on gambling. They use to play illegal cards and cockfighting. Thus they earn more money but they preserve their selves in doing crimes or illegal to have money
            Others are will rather to work than wasting their time in schools. They have seen that even in a college graduate is jobless is jobless or construction laborers or utility boys.
            The last common effects of poverty are insufficient of food and nutrients. Many Filipino’s lived without adequate food. The worst most are skipping meals, or even the children are going to sleep without eating. It’s because they can’t afford to buy nutritious food that needed by their body. They eat mostly dried fish and rice. As a result, their body id thin and they easily get sick. There are no enough nutrients to support for the remaining of standard activities of the body. Because of this our health will be affected. The disease will occur to our body like ulcer. This disease can get if a person has no proper way of eating notorious foods.
            For example, wife is pregnant about four months. She knows that she has a low immune system because of their poor situation. Her husband has no permanent ob. Thus the wife can’t eat nutritious food and fruits well. The salary of his husband is enough to buy their basic needs. They can’t go for check-up if what’s the situation of the baby. Whenever the baby born, there is possibility that if h or she grows, her or her immune system is low too. Her or his mother can give a constant care but fewer budgets for the food, milk and daily supplements. In fact, it is needed that during the first three months of the baby, it will undergo in many check-ups and feeding. The baby has its personal doctor to observe the situation. They are the ones who help the family on how to make their children strong and energetic.
            Due to this situation, children are more affected. They are suffering in hungriness because of the high prices of goods. Our government is helping especially street children’s who can’t eat. It is the priority of the leaders to feed them and give proper health care and protection.
            Hungriness in our country is by large and by large. We are tired to think if what menu we will going to eat that can give us  more  energy. If our body can’t take nutritious food, it may lead going to eat that can give us more energy. If our body can’t take nutritious food, it many lead to disease which
Is another problem that exists.


Scavenging juniors. A common sight to see among the uneducated in a poverty-stricken country.

III. Conclusion
           
Many Filipino’s shouts if what’s the solution of poverty. They mostly curse our political leaders in budgeting  of taxes that we paid.
            In fact , there a solution on how to stop the widespread poverty. “The administration have claimed that agriculture is the backbone of our economy” according to Jose V. Romero Jr. And I agree that because our country is the source of fruits, vegetable and other plants that can be sold in other countries, for the people, it is useful to them for their living because it can help lesser their expenses. They can harvest their fruits or vegetable and deliver it to market. So the family can survive in hungriness because of their efforts. Yes, effort. This is the word is we need right now. People in our society are lazy. They want to earn money in easy way. They join in robbery gang, snatching and pick pocketing. But this person is usually imprisoned. The PHP taskforce are security for peace to prevent crimes that commonly happened.
            Our government can help us in providing jobs. It is the big solution for the who suffer in poverty. For parents they can earn for the future of their children. They can sent their sons and daughter  in schools to gain knowledge. Their children will grow literate and can socialize to others. As the year ages by they will live stable and far from hungriness.
            Nowadays, many students grab the opportunity to work. They apply in fast-food, malls. Restaurants and call centers to earn for the next opening class. They use their time wisely for the sake of their dreams. Some of them apply as a working student on their school. They are the ones who help their selves because they know that their parents can’t give enough financial for them.
            Another common issue in our country is about corruption. If this a problem prevents, our country will improved and become progress. The text that we pay is the biggest which leaders get. They used it for their self-interest. For how many millions up billions of pesos they get from us. If this problem avoid, many public sectors of our country are going to help the poor because they are loyal to their work.
           
IV.  Bibliography

. Romero Jr.  Jose V..“The face of Philippine poverty”.Manila Times.13 July 200.3B
.”The challenges of poverty”.Manila Standard. 23 March 2002:p.13
.Saguisang, Rene. “Feeding the hungry”.Manila Times.27 March 2007. A4
.Dr. Gregorio S. Miranda.“Introductory Economics”.3rd Revised Ed. Philippines:1983
.Dr. Custodiosa A. Sanchez and Fe B. Agpaoa.Contemporary Social Problems
 And Issue.3rd Ed.Philippines:1997
.Marques Jr., Carlos. “Classes start, but need to earn a living keeps children out of    school”.Nation Today.6 March 2001
.Dr. Corazon and PB Claudio.“ How to break the cycle of poverty”.Philippine Daily Inquirer.7 
Oct. 2002.Q3


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