Sunday, November 10, 2013
It was only two weeks ago when I had the chance to travel to Isla Gigantes, and it was devastating to know that almost all of the towns we've passed by during the 4-hour bus ride was somehow decimated... The latest news said the area was also devastated and no communication is available. They added that about 90% of the houses were damaged, and there were casualties.
Here's how the neighboring areas/ islands look like...
(credits to JM Mejorada/Rafy Parpa/Raul Banias for the photos)
It was heartbreaking. When you have met great people there and even have good friends you can't seem to connect with even until today.. I just hope they were saved.
Two weeks ago.. this is how the island looked like when we landed.
Here's how the neighboring areas/ islands look like...
(credits to JM Mejorada/Rafy Parpa/Raul Banias for the photos)
It was heartbreaking. When you have met great people there and even have good friends you can't seem to connect with even until today.. I just hope they were saved.
Two weeks ago.. this is how the island looked like when we landed.
Sunday, July 28, 2013
Why Study Abroad
With the goal to master English as a second or foreign language, learners face questions on whether to stay in their home countries or study abroad. For many, deciding to study abroad is a big endeavor by which they have to give up or put to halt their jobs or school, and even live away from families and friends. Other than the pleasure of seeing the other side of the world or developing one’s language skill, it requires a lot of hardwork to achieve such a life-changing adventure.
Upon landing in your chosen destination, you will have the endless opportunity to learn the language in authentic situations, get acquainted with people who share the same goal, and learn English even when you are out of the classroom. Those are things you will never get to experience in your home country. Research revealed that students, who study English in a territory where it is spoken as a primary language, getting along with people and taking part in their culture, improve language skills faster. This can be rooted on the fact that real-life experiences and immersion in a culture give learners the chance to gain familiarity on how language is supposed to be used.
Understanding ESL Programs Abroad
English as a Second Language (ESL), also known as English as a Foreign Language (EFL), are programs for language study that aims to cater to the specific needs of non-native speakers. Generally, these classes are small to ensure that each member receive the same amount of attention from the teacher. In these settings, students do not only study language but are exposed to the cultural and social activities of the school and the community. This is because language acquisition is directly related to the country’s culture and social structures.
Generally, ESL classes aim to produce students who are able to communicate in English. The four core language skills; reading, writing, listening and speaking are taught with consideration to language proficiency, interests, and purpose for studying. In almost all cases, no matter how curricula differ from one school to another, ESL institution offers courses in vocabulary development, listening comprehension, reading for academic or professional purposes, grammar and writing, and conversation. Students will choose programs that fit their needs. For example, if ESL learners wish to improve English skills to attend an English-speaking university, intensive academic English classes can be taken. For much older students, ESL institutions can offer courses in improving language skills necessary for travelling or socializing. Some classes in general English can range from business communication, situation-specific conversations, and vocabulary for certain professions and social settings.
Benefits of Studying English Abroad
There may be many challenges when studying abroad. All these require students’ adaptability, resourcefulness and creativity in order to survive. As the student progresses towards the goal for studying English abroad, the fruits of their sacrifices in the form of self-confidence, maturation and flexibility to get along with people and communicate in different circumstances can now be reaped.
The following are the benefits of studying English abroad:
1. Wider professional opportunities. There is a great need for individuals who are able to communicate in English. With globalization, many companies require their employees to speak English even at its simplest form as national boundaries and economies continue to thrive. As a student learning English in a country where it is spoken as a primary form of communication, you are able to acquire the skills on how native speakers communicate. Additionally, as there is a need to adjust and survive, personal skills are developed. These, when combined with language ability, can be beneficial to one’s career in the future. Studying English abroad is advantageous as students get the chance to enhance their skills in specific subjects that address the needs just like business English. Since companies go international, employees who have studied abroad get the kind of language skills required to successfully close deals with foreign counterparts.
2. Be academically prepared. Many second language learners go abroad to study in an English-speaking environment as a preparation to get into main stream school in that country. ESL programs offer subjects that focus on academic language skills needed to successfully pass and survive life in a college or professional endeavor. With many schools asking for English test scores like that of IELTS, TOEFL or Cambridge, students who study abroad get the edge of getting into practice every day as they encounter English conversations they wish to master. In a research done by Cummins, it was concluded that ESL students who studied abroad for about two years had acquired face-to-face communication skills that helped developed their academic language proficiency. The same level of fluency can be achieved by students in their home countries after about 5 to 7 years. It was also mentioned that good communication skills acquired from exposure to the language are essential in one’s academic success.
3. Use English exclusively. Perhaps one major challenge for many ESL students is not having the chance to practice their language skills outside of the classroom. In many cases, speaking English in public can be viewed as arrogance or boastfulness. Often, ESL students living under these social conditions finish years of studying the language without mastering it. When they choose to study English abroad, they will be forced to improve their existing language level or skills as there is a need to communicate to survive. Because they can’t get by with their mother tongue, they must cash in on their English basics and consequently able to grasps usage and complex sentences quicker than they are home. In addition to this, they will be exposed to culture and see the relevance in the correct choice of words. They will no longer solely rely on their thesaurus to find varying synonyms for a vocabulary, instead, they would use words according to how socially fitted they are.
4. Gain multicultural friends. When students study abroad, they get to sit in a class where people have differing interpretations of events as influenced by their culture. As ESL students wanted to get along with classmates and participate in discussions, they often struggle to get understood. Consequently, as class members do not share any common language other than English, they are not only forced to negotiate meanings but also learn from their peers. It is in this situation that ESL classrooms can serve as a bridge to forming friendship among peers of different nationalities. As the class progresses, students might disprove common stereotypes and get to understand people better. When the feeling of animosity towards another was eliminated, the willingness to communicate widens. With the friendships that develop abroad, both in school or in the community, the students will get to meet people whom they can pair up with and become language partners after they go back home.
5. Learn the language in authentic situations. Nothing beats first-hand experience when it comes to learning language. Though it is possible to be fluent in English without leaving your home country, it often takes a long time. Experts believed that studying abroad, in a country where the target language is spoken as a mother tongue, one can develop accent and fluency faster. This is because there is a great need to be understood as they talk with the locals. Additionally, special language features like contractions and omissions of words and letters can be discovered and used in correct contexts. Using “gonna” and “wanna” can be examples of these. Additionally, as students may live with a home stay or a dormitory, they get the chance to talk in English after school, even at different events and situations. Authentic language learning can take place as students witness the way native speakers express themselves. As time goes by, ESL students can acquire language skills needed to satisfactorily express what they mean.
Wrapping it up
English is spoken in many countries. As years go by, it has played important roles in making clear communications possible. The popularity and its widespread use started the influx of second or foreign language learners. In fact, it is spoken by 300 million people as their first language, 600 million as their second language and millions more as their foreign language.
With English being the predominant language for international business and communications, many countries enacted laws that support its utilization as a language of the academics, politics and economics. With this, English have surged to become an important factor in finding success in school, work, and international relations giving people the opportunity to find better employment, received greater pay, and get promotions easily.
As the domains of English expand, people also wanted to learn it faster. There are many possible ways to improve one’s English skills, but one sure and quick way to achieving it is by studying English abroad- in a country where it is considered dominant.
Monday, June 3, 2013
Unlike decades ago when little was known about dyslexia, schools today have utilized strategies to integrate dyslexic learners with mainstream classes. What used to be considered a ground for putting a student in the lowest level of learning has transformed into something innovative and emphatic. With understanding of dyslexia, many were given the chance to develop confidence and left school at full potentials.
Reading and the Dyslexics
Reading is an essential skill for learning content areas in all levels of education. Additionally, it can also help students enjoy the joy of reading for entertainment. With the demands of education and literacy programs, students must have the capacity to read and comprehend, spell words correctly, and express views on the written form utilizing correct grammar and usage.
Students who are dyslexics find themselves suffering both the ridicule and discrimination from peers in school as they have the difficulty acquiring the basic literacy skill. Often, as they felt abused, they tend to keep these things from their parents. Many would fear that they will be punished for performing poorly in school. Often, the students’ inability to perform based on a specific set of measurement can be blamed on laziness or IQ.
By creating a classroom that fosters understanding of individual differences and developing self-confidence, a dyslexic child can feel motivated and comfortable as part of the class. Often, they may get stares because of their inability to follow instructions or read simple sentences. It is then essential that the teacher can identify who among the students in the classroom suffers from dyslexia.
Other than identifying a dyslexic, the teacher must be able to have an in-depth understanding of the learning difficulty and its effects on the child in the classroom setting. With this knowledge, help for the child is close at hand. This can include making the classroom a nourishing environment where even the dyslexic students feel valued and motivated.
Perhaps two of the most important things to focus on are the dyslexics’ listening problem and information retention. Students with dyslexia are challenged when it comes to recognizing words and remembering how they are read despite the constant exposure. Generally, they find it difficult to recall even short instructions. Understanding of these problems can help teachers restructure their techniques to address the needs of the student.
Tips on Helping Students with Dyslexia
The following are the ways for teachers to help dyslexic students at different settings/situations:
1. Make lectures or lessons easily absorbed by breaking them into smaller parts.
2. Utilize notes and handouts. Some dyslexics have poor visuals so they can learn better when they do not have to struggle copying what was written on the board.
3. Summarize lessons at the end of the session so they get to hear the overview of the topics discussed.
4. Let the child sit near the teacher so needs are easily noticed and assistance can be provided promptly.
5. If they must copy what’s on the board, give ample time for copying to ensure that the child does not hurry and miss more important points.
6. When given homework, make sure the child writes down the correct instructions and have labeled the assigned book or worksheet. Never instruct verbally.
7. Provide the child with a list of things to do every day to develop a routine and help them become independent and self-reliant.
8. Make use of colored chalks or pens to highlight important information listed on the board.
9. Help the child organize things by encouraging him to use color-coded folders or filers to sort materials used in school.
10. Ensure that the child develops friendships with helpful peers who may assists in clarifying homework instructions after class hours.
Handwriting and Spelling:
1. Emphasize the role of a good handwriting in academic success and how you expect students to develop good ones.
2. Provide practice for cursive writing as it is found to be helpful in developing motor skills among dyslexics.
3. Provide visual aids on how some words should be written in cursive so the students will have a specific model and identify their mistakes.
4. When giving a handwriting activity, be sure that the words you choose are understood by dyslexic students.
5. Praise students for improvement on their handwriting skills to build self-confidence.
6. When having spelling activities, make sure the words were based on a topic previously discussed. Limit the number of new words in the spelling check.
7. Give students the time to check the words they have written as dyslexics have difficulty spelling correctly while writing.
8. When spelling, do not enunciate as if you are chunking the words into independent syllables. This will hinder the dyslexic ability to recognize proper word spelling and spacing.
9. Include words from the Dolch Word List in spelling as they are simple yet challenging. This include words as simple as “and”, “that” and “soon”.
10. Make use of the strategy “Look, Cover, Write, and Check”. This can be done by letting them see the word for some seconds, covering the word as they spell it, and showing the word to check if they got it right.
1. Always make reading fun by integrating things or characters to relate to what was read.
2. You can model the way sentences should be read and let students repeat.
3. Introduce new words slowly and with attention. Be sure they can create a mental picture of what the word is.
4. Do not push the students so hard by making them read beyond what they can do with their skills. Very difficult words will hinder the over-all understanding of what was read.
5. Don’t embarrass dyslexic children making them read aloud in front of the class. This can be done during the child’s consultation or monitoring schedule with the teacher.
6. To ensure the child won’t feel like being left behind; assign a part of the selection to be read a day before. This will give the dyslexics time to practice and familiarize the words for the class to hear.
7. Talk to the parents about the need for assisted reading, so the child can develop interest in reading.
8. Audio books can be helpful in developing memory and enhancing vocabulary.
9. Gradually introduce the child to more difficult reading materials.
10. Make use of pictures to help facilitate understanding of the concepts in the written form.
1. Assess the child’s level in phonics to identify the start-off point for remediation. Spot the strengths and weaknesses.
2. Consider having the child demonstrate understanding of the lessons in the spoken form as an alternative assessment. Dyslexics find it challenging to put thoughts on paper.
3. Have your sessions short but frequent and consistent.
4. Make parents understand the challenge of their children and encourage them to seek for external assistance.
5. Make use of the positive reinforcement strategy to motivate the dyslexic children to challenge themselves.
To be considered or branded as “different” can be painful for a child with dyslexia. For the educational and social needs of the child to be fully addressed, it is important to know the strengths and weaknesses. When the teacher is aware of the child’s needs and their role in achieving classroom goals, it is easier to choose the proper strategy to make the dyslexic’s integration to the classroom successful.
Despite their difficulty in reading and assigning correct sounds to words or letters, dyslexics have their strengths. This includes speaking skills, spatial and artistic abilities. It is essential that the teacher directs the student to the development of these strengths rather than pushing making them suffer the ordeal of having to do tasks perfectly at their weak points.
The growing demands for teachers to be more flexible have been effective in implementing programs to help dyslexic learners. As frontrunners in the educational system, they have to find and implement methods that answer the students’ needs. Understanding from teachers and parents are needed for dyslexics to succeed. It must be emphasized that they have skills and talents despite their literary skills difficulty. When teachers and parents know where to attack the problem, dyslexic children can be developed to their full potentials and succeed.
Monday, May 27, 2013
How to make money online? That is one of the Internet's most keyed in questions, and fortunately, one of the lines that triggered many to try writing or do home-based jobs.
Of course, we all want to cash in on our writing talents. Despite the popularity of websites and web writing, many would fall victims to people pretending to be clients and buy original articles at the price not even a high school kid will appreciate. There are plenty of writing job advertisements on online portals, and they almost always have one thing in common- they cause brain drain and pay your efforts at very low rates. Of course I know that, I have known a lot of people, and I even almost tried it myself. Having a full-time job, however, made me realize it is not worth the effort. That's until I found Yurtopic.com as I was on random net surfing for blog ideas. Here, I will give you the top five reasons you should put your best foot forward to get into the list of Yurtopic contributors.
1. It is basically a new website, and that means, there are many topics waiting to be written. Of course, Yurtopic gives you the chance to make money online with lesser competition.
|Categories in blue are the ones that have articles already.|
|The list says it all. It pays almost twice the amount offered by people who actually outsource.|
3. You don't have to worry about the photos to include, they do it for you! You even earn extra if you share your own images.
4. The staff support is excellent and timely. I may say that CEO Paul Lucas is a good example of a hands-on leadership. Don't you think it is nice to receive updates directly from him?
5. It gives you the chance to have your work published, the way you want it.Special instructions page gives you more flexibility to inject imagination and creativity to your work!
If you want to write for Yurtopic.com, write a good article and fill out the application form! It's not rocket science!
Who said that making money online is difficult? With your writing talent, you can sit comfortably at home, earning from what you love to do!
Sunday, May 26, 2013
We all some some throwback day, right?
This is one of these days when I get to look back to my college days. Perhaps one of the most amazing experiences include writing for the school paper and a local daily, being a junior reporter for a radio station, writing a screenplay and doing an advocacy ad for a local government. Will I ever get the chance to do it again? Who knows?
Ah!! Perhaps this is induced by my students' magazine the other day!
|First Assignment. All worth the effort for the banner story.|
Saturday, May 25, 2013
by: Orrick Johns (1887-1946)
“Crying cranes and wheeling crows...
I'll remember them," she said;”
With the tense on the first line, being in the present progressive, this poem might be talking about the continuing complications of love or relationship between two people belonging to different or clashing classes. Cranes and crows are birds that do not only differ in genus but also in appearance and characteristics. Perhaps they both have to endure the conflicts being caught in the middle of the two groups.
Both birds are known to go in flocks. A shrilling crane is the one that leads the flock while in flight, searching for the places to land. When the leader gets tired and with its voice slowly fading, one takes over. The author might be talking about giving, leading and cooperating with all having the chance to lead. Crows on the other hand, cries when there is distress, and thus solicit rescue or support even from unrelated flocks. Perhaps the author is expressing the troubles present when both flocks meet. Their beliefs and practices do not thrive.
The characteristics of both birds tell about their ways of bringing in safety, warmth, communication, and importance of family in different ways. Cranes are known to adapt well to environments while the crows are known to pest on farmers’ fields. Cranes tend to fly straight to their direction, while crows are known to wheel or form arcs as they go along, and thus, might not even able to reach destination with their ever-changing mind.
On the second line, when she said, “I will remember them” being in the future tense, she might be talking about finally giving up. The title supports this claim. The word “answer” is used when one has reached a solution or an end point. This might even suffice and punctuates the quest for truth.
An anonymous poem
“Thy heart is like some icy lake,
On whose cold brink I stand;”
On the first line, the author describes the heart of the subject as an icy lake which is the opposite of what should the heart be- warm. The author might be talking about unrequited love. Perhaps the object of affection shows no interest in the love offered. “Icy lake” would mean that it might as well be dangerous. In most cases, the ice that forms in lakes are thin and weak, and whoever stands there is at risk of falling into the freezing water, causing one to shiver in extreme cold.
The second line tells about the author being on the edge of the cold lake bank (the subject’s heart), having the tendency or probability to fall. This means that despite the awareness of his/her love’s fate, there is willingness to sacrifice or be hurt just to be in someone’s heart.
**** Submitted in compliance with my graduate class in "Literary Genre." It pays to see what others are writing, but it is even more rewarding to crack the lines on your own so copy at your own risk. :)
Unusual collocates signal the intention of the writer that there is more to text than what we see in the surface. In Tennyson’s “The Eagle”, he wrote, “The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls” which made use of unusual collocations “wrinkled” and “crawl”. Basically, when the word “sea” is used, adjectives like calm, stormy, misty, dangerous, blue, treacherous, salty, clear, icy, turbulent, peaceful, still, shallow, wavy, deep, cold, rough, warm or freezing can be used. Tennyson is describing the sea beyond literal. He might be describing it from a different perspective using personifications “wrinkled” and “crawls”.
Here, I chopped the parts of the line so each will be clearly analyzed:
The wrinkled sea
The use of a determiner “the” means Tennyson is referring to a specific sea. The modifier, an unusual collocate, “wrinkled” for the head, sea, could be his imaginative description of the big waves or even the land surfaces underneath this body of water. It might refer to the rocks, mountain ranges, hills, plateaus, canyons, or basins that can be seen clearly from the bird’s eye view when the water is clear. This could mean that underneath the water, there is irregularity of surfaces.
In addition, with “wrinkled” being a human quality, this could mean old age and the sea, representing a person rather than a body of water. Tennyson might be talking about old persons, having different attributes and struggles.
This qualifier, a preposition, describes the position of the eagle as represented by the pronoun, him. The eagle is flying directly over the sea. It might have been flying so high that the sea waves looked wrinkled rather than wavy or turbulent. This would mean, however, seeing only the over-all picture from above but not the smaller details when one is close to the water.
The usage of this pronoun to refer to the eagle can also mean that it was given an attribute of masculinity and with it comes the qualities power, superiority or strength. Tennyson might be referring to a leader or someone who belongs to a higher stratum, thus giving it the privilege to see things from above or be higher than the others.
The verb, “crawls”, means the movement of the waves to and from the shore. Since the sea is wide, the smaller movement of the waves can be seen as tiny lines from above. With the waves’ elongated shape, moving horizontally, they look like worms crawling sideways. As I have mentioned in the previous part, with the collocation “wrinkled” referring to old age or maturity, “crawls” might represent otherwise- the young or babies starting to move. With waves being part of the wider sea, it might mean the young among the aged. As the waves move to and from the shore, it could mean, the cycle of life or fulfillment of one’s duty. When some are done, some will have to take over.
Summing up, Tennyson might be referring to a leader who can see people beneath him as he is sitting on his throne. With his kingdom as wide as the sea, there are a multitude of individuals, old and young. He oversees them as they are taking turns in doing their duties or he might have been in power so long he has seen the changes in the cycle from above as I have mentioned about the waves to and from the shore representing the cycle of life. Being positioned above, he could get the general perspective but failed to understand what was happening when he is close to them. When the sea is turbulent, the waves are big and this might mean struggle among those who belong to the flock. This, however, can never be felt by the leader as he is far enough to hear the crashing waves or his subjects’ cry.
**** Submitted in compliance with my graduate class in "Literary Genre."
It pays to see what others are writing, but it is even more rewarding to crack the lines on your own so copy at your own risk. :)
|All in. English majors' first student magazine.|
I remember the day when I, as a senior mass communication student, was tasked by a local daily editor to interview a controversial public official and write an article as part of my internship requirements. How can I forget? That article landed as a banner story, and later found its way to the college's bulletin board. Baptism of fire, it was. I later found out, during a conversation, that my internship superior used to be the editor-in-chief of the school paper I write for. Small world. (See it here)
Back to reality. I was full of excitement for my subject load. For quite a while, I have been wanting to teach journalism or write again.
For some years, there has been a decline on the quality of student writers produced by the school organ. Perhaps it has become a lousy training ground as many schools do not want to invest or spend money to publish school news or grant scholarships to their campus journalists. In most cases, students will only get to read these published writings once or twice a year. Because their are insufficient opportunities, talents in writing are just poured into private journals or diaries that may never be read and thus fall short on advises to develop.
Despite the popularity of social networking sites where one can easily "publish" thoughts, school paper does something unequaled by strongly inculcating a deep sense of professionalism and social responsibility. This is because campus magazines or newspapers train students to express opinions objectively and ethically which improves the dynamism of press freedom.
After about two months of preparations through seminar-type lecture, my students were able to grasp the concepts on news, editorial, feature, photojournalism, lay-outing, and other related topics. I was happy to discover their strengths on the genre they are good at. Consequently, they are happier to know they can write and judge articles following journalistic conventions. As expected, they have surpassed my expectations. Well done, people!
|Sports and the sporty.|
|Checkin'. My students finalizing their articles for the publication.|
|Ed-chief checks. Tin2 giving the editorial board a closer look,|
|Yellowed. The sample feature page of Pasin-aw (clarification).|
** Photo credits: Anamae Cabugwason, BSEd- English, University of Iloilo- PEN
Sunday, May 12, 2013
Molato, Razel John
Rendon, Resan John
Rendon, Resan John
BS Marine Engineering
The basic idea of learning is that it is a day by day process of acquiring knowledge and information that is taught to us whether by a person, the society we live in and the experiences we have. Having the knowledge on a certain thing gives us a greater advantage over others for it gives us the sense of confidence and pride so as we, as an individual can perform the role we are playing in this life in the most effecient as we can. As a student, it is a given fact that we come to school to learn the basic things in life as well as the complicated life. Learning hones us to be a better individual someday and a more competitive person as we all know that we are now in the time of modernization, we must not let ourselves be left out.
So, how important is it to know how to build a ship? Basically, as a marine engineering student, it is a must to learn the process of ship building because for the fact that we are actually here to study about the processes and procedures as well as all about the marine stffs. Knowing how a ship is built makes us understand it better. But before that, let us first define what a ship is.
Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant watercraft. It is distinguished from a boat based on size and cargo as well as the passenger capacity. It is used in various activities such as transporting people or goods across the lakes, seas and rivers. It is also use for fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. Historically, a "ship" was a vessel with sails rigged in a specific manner. In armed conflict and in daily life they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate vessels for combat and to transport and support forces ashore.
If we were to go back to history, we'll see that ships were a key in great explorations and scientific and technological development. It became a medium for exchange and trade from all over the world. Also, ship have been use as a means of transportation for such purpose as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. New crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world's population growth after the 16th century. Maritime transport has shaped the world's economy into today's energy-intensive pattern.
Building a ship can be one of the most difficult things to build. To have a good output, one must first plan for the design of the ship you are to build and what you want to do. Planning is really one of the most important things for us to ensure good outcome and results in anything we do. At this point, we must already have that idea of what would it look like once it's done. Not only a photographic idea but we must also consider other things that are essential in building a ship. First is the capacity or if the company or certain person is capable for providing the financial aspects that would cover all the expenses that we are to use in the whole duration of our construction. The materials we should use and the workforce we need in order to finish building our ship at the scheduled time we set.
In building a ship, we can divide the work into 4 different sections: the Bow (front), the stern (back), the remainder of the hull (body of the ship) and all the other details, like masts, flags, and others. According to the minescraft org., The front and back of the ship are often the most difficult parts to build, as they’re round and generally odd looking.
There are different types of a Ship and for each type; there is a different way on how to build it because it is to perform on different functions. Ships are divided according to how it is used for. Here are some common types of ship.
Troop-ships - their purpose is to carry freight and passengers.
a. General-cargo ships - Once the most popular type, nowadays general-cargo ships are still built but in small quantities. They usually have spacious holds which occupy the larger part of the hull.
b. Specialized ships - the cargo is carefully distributed according to its type and requirement of special conditions:
*Reefer - they transport perishable foods such as fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and dairy, having a carrying capacity of 8,000 - 12,000 t. They sail at a speed of 18-22 knots which is higher than that of the common general-cargo ships because these perishable goods require faster delivery.
*Timber carriers - one-decked ships designed to carry logs and beams; carrying capacity - 5,000 - 20,000 t, speed - 13-15 knots.
*Containerships - carrying capacity - 8,000-15,000 t on average and 25,000-30,000 t for big containerships. They are classified as unit-load ships because freight is carried in huge boxes of standard size (units), usually from 10 to 40 t. Containerships are said to have made a revolution in the history of water transport.
*Barge-carrying ships (lighter ships) -This type is quite similar of that of the category of containerships but the principle is slightly different. Cargo is carried in floating containers, also referred to as barges or lighters, each with a carrying capacity of 375 t - 1050 t. As these barges cannot sail on their own, they need to be tugged or towed to the ship. There, they can be loaded aboard in different ways depending on the type of lighter ship. The advantage of this type of ships is that cargo can be carried in separate barges to and from smaller ports through a series of rivers and canals that are inaccessible for big ships.
*Ro-ro ships - used for transporting motor vehicles and other wheeled equipment. Ro-ro is short for roll-on roll-off ships and is thus called because cargo is carried on wheeled containers or trailers. Ro-ro ships sail at an average speed of 22 knots. Ro-ro ships usually have 2-6 decks and look like huge parking lots with stern openings and lifting platforms to sort out trailers. Modern car carriers are capable of carrying about 6,500 automobiles.
*Heavy-cargo ships - designed to carry cranes, oil drills, machinery for factories and power stations, equipment for heavy industry and other cargo weighing 700-1000 t.
These are just some types of Ships with their functions. The internal make-up of a ship is basically based on what functions it will carry. For a better performance of a ship, it's parts must be according to it's function. So, what are the parts of a ship? Here are some basic parts of ship that we must be familiar of.
First, we have the anchor. It is a large hook attached to the ship which is cast overboard and digs into the sea bed to keep the ship from moving. Then, we have the bow which is the front of the vessel which is basically one of the hardest parts to do along with the back part. Hull, on the other hand is the body of the ship. As it implies, it covers the majority part of the ship. Next, we have the keel or the timber at the bottom of the hull that runs the bow to the stern. It is often referred to as the ship's "backbone". Then we have the mast which is a large wooden spar used to hold other spars and rigging, the lines that supports the masts and move the sails. Another part is the port; it is the left side of the ship when you are facing the bow. The right side of the ship is called the starboard. Then we have the rudder, a blade attached under the stern which is use for steering. Spars are long pieces of woods which supports sails and the rigging. The horizontal spar that holds a square sail is called the yards. Lastly, the back of a vessel is referred to as the stern.
Now we know what are the basic parts of ships and some of its type, we can now learn some steps in building a ship. We already know that the front and the back part of the ship is the hardest thing to build. So, we can start by either the front or the middle part or by building the entire framework first. But before we decide what to do first, we must determine the size of the ship so we can determine how wide the bottom is and to where we will always start.
In building the bow or the front part of the ship, it is often best to create first the general shape for you totake out blocks and make it look more aquadynamic and better to look at since the front of the ship is a bit tricky, as it’s round and pointy. It is really good to start by first finding or making the center part of the ship. This will serve as the lowest point that is our reference when we build up the remainder n the front.
After you build the middle of the ship, slowly build your way up to the highest desired height. This must be done slowly until we are halfway of our desired height where in we can already increase your speed. Once you’ve reached the desired height, it’s time to start building from this point towards the sides. Begin on 1 side and slowly work your way towards the desired width of the boat, but make sure you don’t make it too wide or not wide enough.
The stern is a little easier. Start first with creating the anchor; this is the part that keeps the ship from moving. Then, connect the bottom of the ship to the bottom of the ship. After you have connected it to the ship, it’s time to build upwards to make the back part of the ship. The top part can also stick out a little on all sides, which will also help making it look less flat and plain. This is also where the cabins reside.
This is the easiest part among the three especially if you have already started with either the bow or the stern. You just simply continue to extend until you’ve reached your desired length. However, if you’re starting with the hull, building it will still be quite easy. You start by creating the middle, which is just a long line of blocks. Then determine how wide you want your ship to be and slowly work your way towards that height and width. Don’t increase the height too fast, or it’ll look very weird.
Once you’ve completed the entire body of the ship it’s time to add details. This will once again depends on the type of ship you’re making, a pirateship will usually have sails, while a steampunk style ship might have a hot air balloon with huge propellors.
One detail that will look good on pretty much all ships is a few layers in a different block. A ship made entirely out of wooden planks looks quite plain, so replace a few layers with logs or differently coloured planks.
You may also add fences on the edges, both to prevent people from falling off and as a way to make them ship look better. Don’t forget to leave some openings to allow people to go on and off board.
Then, you can already patch up your work by adding finishing touches as painting and stuffs of that kind.
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