Sunday, May 1, 2011

IELTS Vocabulary Part 2

money given by government: a grant or gift of money from a government to a private company, organization, or charity to help it to function
maximum permitted number or amount: a maximum number or quantity that is permitted or needed
proportional share: a proportional share of something that somebody should contribute or receive

subject to controls: subject to controls or limits, e.g. of time or availability

risk-taking businessperson: somebody who initiates or finances new commercial enterprises

Cottage Industry  
small home-based business: a small-scale business involving people who mostly work at home

characteristic of rule by men: 
relating to or characteristic of a culture in which men are the most powerful members

do something again: to make an identical version of something repeatedly and exactly, or do something again in exactly the same way
physical skill: ease and skill in physical movement, especially in using the hands and manipulating objects

place somebody in lower rank: to give somebody or regard somebody as having a lower rank or status than another

leading position: the most prominent, important, active, or responsible position in something

giving aid to cause: active verbal support for a cause or position

nearly: almost, but not quite

found frequently: occurring, accepted or practiced commonly or widely

shortage: an inadequate supply of something necessary, especially a nutrient

proclamation: announcement, decree, statement, pronouncement, endorsement

set of things for use together: a set of articles, tools, or equipment used for a particular purpose

death rate: the number of deaths that occur at a specific time, in a specific group, or from a specific cause

occurrence of disease: the relative frequency of occurrence of a disease

Immune system    
system that recognizes and opposes disease: the interacting combination of all the body's ways of recognizing cells, tissues, objects, and organisms that are not part of itself, and initiating the immune response to fight them
existing or happening in many places, or affecting many people

enhancement: improvement, upgrading, augmentation, amelioration, development, supplementation

feasible quality: the degree to which something can be achieved or put into effect (often used before a noun)

add ingredients to something: to add further ingredients to food or drink in order to improve its flavor or add nutrients (usually passive)
change: divergence, variation, modification, broadening, branching out, expansion

act of eating or drinking: the eating or drinking of something, or the amount that somebody eats or drinks
 act of using something up: the use of natural resources or fuels, or the amount of resources or fuels used

able to be maintained: able to be maintained
maintaining ecological balance: exploiting natural resources without destroying the ecological balance of an area

nutrient needed in tiny amounts: a substance that an organism requires for normal growth and development but only in very small quantities, e.g. a vitamin or mineral

work with others: to work with another person or group in order to achieve something

make something certain: to make sure that something will happen or be available

action affecting another's affairs: the act of intervening, especially a deliberate entry into a situation or dispute in order to influence events or prevent undesirable consequences

High yielding        
abundant: crops that produces a lot

very great: extremely large, powerful, or great

basic ingredient of diet: a food that forms the basis of the diet of the people of a region or of an animal

take advantage of somebody: to take selfish or unfair advantage of a person or situation, usually for personal gain
use something for benefit: to use or develop something in order to gain a benefit

The Persuasive Résumé

A résumé is not just a list of your qualifications. It packages your assets into a convincing advertisement that sells you for a specific job. The goal of a persuasive résumé is winning an interview. Even if you are not in the job market at this moment, preparing a résumé now has advantages. Having a current résumé makes you look well organized and professional in case unexpected employment opportunities arise. Moreover, preparing a résumé early helps you recognize weaknesses and might give you two or three years to update your credentials.

Basic Parts of a Résumé

Main Heading
Your résumé should always begin with your name, address, and telephone number.
Including an e-mail address suggests that you are computer savvy.
Keep the main heading as simple as possible.
If possible, include a number where messages may be left for you.
Prospective employers tend to call the next applicant when no one answers.
Avoid showing both permanent and temporary addresses; some specialists say that dual addresses immediately identify about-to-graduate applicants.
Don't include the word Résumé; it's like putting the word "letter" above a correspondence.

Career Objective
Objectives make the recruiter's life easier by quickly classifying the résumé.
Such declaration can also disqualify a candidate if the stated objective doesn't match the company's job description.
You have three choices regarding career objectives:
1. Objectives intended for a specific targeted position. For example, the following responds to an advertised position:
            Objective: To work in the health care industry as a human resources trainee with                              exposure to recruiting, training, and benefit administration.
            2. An objective that involves using a general statement for many prospective jobs.
            Objective: Challenging position in urban planning/ A position in sales and marketing.
            3. If you are preparing an all-purpose resume, to omit the career objective is possible.

***Some consultants warn against using the words entry-level in your objective. This means you lack experience.***

You should include the names and location of schools, dates of attendance, major fields of study, and degrees received.
Your grade-point average and/or class ranking are important to prospective employers.
A list of completed courses makes the resume dull; refer to courses only if they can relate to the position sought.
When relevant, include certificates earned, seminars attended, and workshops completed. If your education is incomplete, include statements as, completed 80 units in 120-unit program.
This section can be named Education, Academic Preparation, or Professional Training.

Work Experience
If your work experience is significant and relevant to the position sought, this information should appear before education.
List your most recent employment first and work backwards, including only those jobs that you think will help you win the targeted position.
Show the following for each position;
·                     employer's name, city, and state
·                     dates of employment, including month and year
·                     most important job title
·                     significant duties, activities, accomplishments, and promotions

***be aware though, that time gaps in your employment history will probably be questioned in the interview***

Describe your employment achievements concisely but concretely.
           Avoid generalities such as "Worked with customers."
           Be more specific with statements such as;
                       Served 40 or more retail customers a day
                       Successfully resolved problems about customs stationery orders
                       Acted as intermediary among customers, printers, and suppliers

Number matters! If possible, quantify your accomplishments, such as;
           Conducted study of equipment needs of 100 small businesses in Phoenix
           Personally generated orders for sales of $90,000 annually
           Encoded all the production models for a 250-page employee procedures manual
           Assisted editor in layout, design, and news writing for 12 issues of division newsletter                                  

In addition to technical skills, employers seek individuals with communication, management, and interpersonal capabilities. This means you'll want to select work experiences and achievements that illustrate your initiative, dependability, responsibility, resourcefulness, and leadership.

Employers also want people who can work together in teams. Thus, include statements such as;
           Collaborated with interdepartmental team in developing 10-page handbook for temporary workers
           Headed student government team that conducted most successful voter registration in campus history
Capabilities and Skills
Recruiters want to know specifically what you can do for their companies. Therefore, list your special skills, such as Proficient in preparing correspondence and reports using WordPerfect.
Include your ability to use computer programs, office equipment, foreign languages, or sign language.
Describe proficiencies you have acquired through training and experience, such as; Trained in computer accounting, including general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and payroll.

Use expressions like
competent in              skilled in          proficient with           experienced in             ability to

Competent in typing, editing and proofreading reports, tables, letters, memos, manuscript, and business forms.

If you are current with today's technology, you might say, "Experienced in Internet navigation, including the World Wide Web search skills.

***Be sure to incorporate nouns such as those used in the job description for the position you want.***

You'll also want to highlight exceptional aptitudes, such as working well under stress and learning computer programs quickly. If possible, provide details and evidence that back up your assertions. For example, Mastered the Barrister computer program in 25 hours with little instruction.
Search for examples of your writing, speaking, management, organizational, and interpersonal skills--particularly those talents that are relevant to your targeted job.

For recent graduates, this section can be used to give recruiters evidence of your potential.
This part can be called Skills and Abilities, Highlights of Skills, or Skills Summary

Awards, Honors, and Activities
If you have three or more awards or honors, highlight them by listing them under separate heading. If not, put them with activities.
Include awards, scholarships, fellowship, honors, recognition, commendations, and certificates.
Be sure to identify items clearly. Your reader may be unfamiliar with what you mean, so give details.
Unclear: Recipient of Star award
Clear: Recipient of Star award given by the university to outstanding graduates       who combine academic excellence and extracurricular achievement.

It is also appropriate to include school, community, and professional activities. Employers are interested in evidence that you are a well-rounded person. This section provides an opportunity to demonstrate leadership and interpersonal skills. Try to use action statements.
Dull: Treasurer of business class
Strong: Collected dues, kept financial records, and paid bills while serving as treasurer of 35-member business management club.

Personal Data
The trend in resume today is to omit personal data such as birth date, marital status, height, weight, nationality, or religious affiliation. Such information doesn't relate to genuine occupational qualifications, and recruiters are legally barred from asking for such information.
Some people include hobbies or interests that might grab attention or serve as conversation starters for interviews. Be careful, though, not to include dangerous pastimes or time-consuming interests. Rather, try to indicate your willingness to travel or relocate, since many companies will be interested.

***However, when applying abroad, this section is highly advised since certain jobs require specific physical and personal qualifications.***

Other Qualifications
Include all considerable experience, awards, special talents that can't be classified under any other parts of the resume. Examples of information to be included can be; license or certificates, awards outside of school and employment, and club memberships/organizational positions in school and community.
You can name this section Summary of Qualifications, Other Qualifications or Activities.

Many experts don't agree on including references on your résumé. They believe this section takes valuable space, and it is not normally instrumental in securing interviews. Instead, they prefer that a candidate bring to the interview a separate list of individuals willing to discuss about the applicant's qualifications.
Include the title of the person (Professor, Dr., and Mrs.)
List their complete addresses with zip codes and telephone numbers with area codes.
Never include personal or character references like your friends or neighbors because employers rarely consult them. Companies are more interested in the opinions of objective individuals.

***Contrary to common practice, experts see little reason for including the statement "References Provided Upon Request" at the end of the page.***
Additional Note:

· Avoid small print and unusual typefaces. Because touching letters or unusual fonts are likely to be misread, use familiar fonts. The commonly used fonts are Helvetica or Times New Roman. Type fonts should be at least 12 points.
· Avoid graphics and vertical lines. Online résumé scanners can hardly identify the emphasis brought by arrows and vertical lines. Most can read asterisks, bullets, and bold type. Italics and underlining are also acceptable but not widely advised.
· Use smooth white paper, black ink, and quality printing. Avoid colored and textured papers as well as dot matrix printings. Use white, off-white, or buff (shiny) colored heavy paper.
· Be sure that your name occupies the first line of the page. Don't use fancy layouts that may be more attractive than your data.
· Provide white space. To ensure separation of words and categories, leave plenty of white space.
· Emphasize keywords. Keywords are usually nouns that describe what an employer wants. It also features nouns and phrases expressing important employment skills. How can you know what nouns to include? Take a look at the advertisements and job description to see what the employer is requiring. When you have these skills, be sure to highlight them.
· Avoid using the pronoun "I" in your statements
· Don't write in complete sentences. The employer expects that the subject of the statements is YOU. Experts advise using verb-centered statements.
· If the résumé is composed of more than one page, be sure to write your name in every page. You must also indicate the page number after your name.
· Revise it many times. Your resume demands careful polishing, proofreading, and critiquing.
· Verify all the facts, particularly those involving your previous employment and education. Don't be caught in a mistake, or worse, distortion of previous jobs and dates of employment. These items likely will be verified. Résumé with deception or lies are simply risky.
· Make your résumé look professional. Avoid anything humorous or cute.
· After revising, have someone knowledgeable check it. This document should be perfect!
· Be sure to write your résumé yourself because no one knows YOU better than yourself!

Choosing a Resume Style
Your qualification and career goal will help you choose among the three résumé styles:

·                     Chronological
·                     Functional
·                     Combination

           This is the most popular résumé style. It lists work history job by job, starting with the most recent position. Recruiters prefer this style because it quickly reveals a candidate's work stability and promotion record.  This format works well for candidates who have experience in their fields of employment, and for those who show steady career growth. It highlights experiences directly related to the position you seek.

            This résumé style focuses more on the applicant's skills rather than on past employment. It is used to de-emphasize limited work experience or negative employment history and highlights potentials. This is useful for people with no job experience or has large gaps in between employments. Many candidates who prefer career shift can also benefit from this style.
            This is combined outcome of the chronological and functional styles. This emphasizes a candidate’s capabilities while including complete job listings. This can also work well with fresh graduates and people who had no paid experience in the field.

***Although résumé have standard parts, their arrangement and content must be strategically planned depending on the qualification and experience status of the applicant.***


 Typhoon is a tropical cyclone in which winds are greater than 117 kph, and a tropical storm in the western Pacific and Indian oceans. It is usually a big problem that we face in our country. We are not the only ones affected, but mostly, people around us too. Sometimes, it comes without any information from our Philippine astronomical service. Alertness is one way to prevent the affect of typhoon. We know that typhoon could affect our future. As I go searching through some different books and with the help of city library, I made my introduction possible. I may now state that typhoon may lead our deaths. 

Typhoon is a calamity that everyone suffers. We can’t predict what would be the next calamity to happen in this world. Why is there always a calamity coming? Actually, it is a part of our lives; we could handle this situation, in order to lift our strengths up as this is only a trial of life. God gives this to us, so we can solve anything. Simple things happen in reality but there’s a lesson behind the problems. Never be afraid that calamity comes, it’s just like losing our hope. Every time there’s a happening, don’t panic. Focus to help save our family.

Every Filipino is a victim of a typhoon. Last year, typhoon Frank brought more damage compared with any typhoon before. Many people had no shelter left, even foods. Other died because of strong winds and heavy rain. Sometimes, we are the centre of cyclone, so if they arrive, we got no choice left but to pray for survival. There are many ways to avoid such thing, but always remember that when typhoon comes, don’t panic.

Frank Attack. Iloilo flooded after being hit by typhoon Frank, 2008


Every day, we are aware that problems come in our surroundings. At times, a typhoon comes every month, and we always think we can’t survive. A lot of people died because of typhoon. We cannot see it coming. They just did. With this, we must be alert in order for us to secure our family or belongings. It is a big problem that can affect people, including, in most cases, their houses.

Typhoon: it can destroy our future. With that problem, we cannot easily get back into normal life. We need to sacrifice first to build another future. One of the most powerful typhoon in recently years is typhoon Ondoy. It was a big challenge for us; many people suffer, no houses, foods and even clothes, and for the worst, nothing left.

The path of the storm system itself is generally a curved parabolic trajectory with the storm moving northwest weirdly (in the northern hemisphere) at the velocity of only 5 miles per hour or less while in the zone of the trade winds. On reaching its turning point, the storm recurred north east weirdly and may accelerate to 20 miles per hour or more as it continues into the region of the prevailing westerly’s.

Typhoons may develop at anytime during the year, but occur most frequently (in the northern hemisphere) between July and November, at which time doldrums are farthest north of the equator. The average frequency of recurrence for the entire typhoon region is approximately 20-25 storms per year.

Most Philippine typhoons are formed in two places. The first is the area in the Pacific Ocean between the Philippines and Caroline’s-Marianas Islands. Most of the typhoons that affect the Philippines are formed here. The second is the area in the South China Sea, between the Philippines and the Asiatic mainland.

Since, most typhoons move in a west, north westerly track, provinces facing the Pacific Ocean suffer the most powerful winds. The area most affected is northern Luzon, Eastern Visayas, Bicol, and Central Luzon. Western Visayas and Northern Mindanao are not often affected by typhoons, and they are even rarer in Southern Mindanao. The tropical cyclones that pass over the Philippines 57% reach typhoon intensity 24% are storms, and only 19% have winds less than 63kph.

Sea on land. People rushing home as flood invades the street

The typhoon quickly dissipates as it moves over land. Its path is marked by wide spread and lowering dark cloud, torrential rains, and surging seas. Cloudiness may cover a area measuring almost 2000 miles (3200kilometers) in diameter. Before the arrival of the typhoon the atmosphere is sultry and oppressive and a mercury barometer exhibits a peculiar pumping action.

The outside diameter of the doughnut-shaped belt within which the storms effects are perceptibly felt may range from about 50miles (80 kilometres) to many times that distance. The typhoon possess a central “eye” 5 to 25 miles in diameter, distinguish by relatively clear slivers and almost complete calm.

On June 21, 2008, Typhoon Frank unleashed heavy rains and strong winds that flooded and devastated almost the entire Province of Iloilo. One third of one million six hundred ninety one thousand, citizens of the Province of Iloilo, were left homeless. Of those who seek shelter in evacuation centers, as of July 1, 2008, 131 died and 103 people are still missing and feared dead. All in all, 18,800 houses were totally damaged and 40,592 houses were partially damaged. Roads, bridges, hospital buildings, and facilities, power and water facilities, and other infrastructure costing nearly 1 billion 5 hundred million were destroyed. Agricultural crops suffered great losses. Poultry and livestock were washed away. Right now, Iloilo is in dire need of help. The displaced and homeless populations immediately need food, clothing, water, shelter and medicines. Our infrastructure facilities need to be repaired and rehabilitated. The victims would also need livelihood assistance to start their lives again. As governor of the Province of Iloilo, I appeal to the various sectors, the non-governmental organizations, concerned government agencies, foreign donors, friends and benefactors to help rebuild Iloilo. Through the indomitable spirit and strength of our people, the Province of Iloilo, with your full support, will help rebuild itself. Mabuhay Ang Mga Ilonggo

Sad reunion. Father cried so hard as he finally saw his son
after being swifted by the flash flood.


Nowadays, our climate is not really in a good, predictable condition. What’s happening in our country now? Many people suffer the effects of “typhoon”. It is one reason why we are considered victim. Typhoon suddenly attacks our environment. After that, results are hard to accept but then we cannot bring back what we had in the past.

However, even if it is just only typhoon, many people suffer. Countless died. In order for us to build a better future, we shouldn’t hesitate to help, even if it’s just a small support. Always think positive because it will solve everything what we experienced.

Faith in God is the best way to recover. Typhoon Ondoy is a disaster that we cannot forget, even until we die. As an individual, we must be responsible for ourselves; even if typhoon isn’t here yet. Everyday, we should be aware of what happens in our surroundings.

I want to tell everybody that typhoon is just like of our self. We cannot know when we are going to die and we cannot know too when typhoon comes. It is a part of our life. As we are living in this world, problems will continue to haunt but we must be productive. No one can survive, if there aren’t struggles.


Maria Elena Paterno. The typhoon all about tropical cyclones. City Library. 1990
Fergus J. Wood. The encyclopedia Americana. 1984
Www.typhoonfrank .com. 2008


Interview with an English teacher

I was surprised to receive a call last Wednesday. I was chosen for an 
interview to be presented for a Master's class in UP.

UP oblation. Symbol of academic excellence

Interviewer: Do you use English strictly in the class or you do code switching? Why or why not?
Me: I always go to class with the intention of speaking English strictly for the entire period. I believe that best way to learn a language is to experience it firsthand.  I want my students to have the same outlook, and emphasize same on the first day of class.
The use of English exclusively or of code switching depends on the kind of students the class has. There are some classes where majority of the members don’t have much difficulty in understanding the instructions given purely in the language. In this case, I use English strictly. In some classes, however, where most members would often say, “Ha? Sorry, liwat bi ma’am”, I usually repeat what I have said, speaking slowly. When I look at them and see confusion the second time I said the same thing, then, there  is not much of a choice but to replace some vocabulary with its closest equivalent in the dialect, or sometimes, paraphrase. Whenever possible, I use English strictly.
Int: What language competence do you most develop among your students?
Me: I focus more on the development of the writing skills as it is my subject matter. I, of course, integrate the other areas of the language. It is impossible for one area to stand alone.

Int: What does this competence mean to your students?
Me: Some students appreciate it but some forced themselves to be interested. For those interested, they would always tell me that acquiring the skill can give them an edge when they apply for jobs in the future. As I have noticed, those who develop appreciation show higher degree of achievement than those who are not purely interested.  For some, it is an opportunity to enhance their ability to play with the written words, some discover their hidden talent to create good compositions, but some eventually learn the rules but can’t make pieces as interesting as to those who like it in the first place. I guess it’s safe to say that there are a lot of students who think developing the skill in writing is just part of the curriculum and not as a tool in achieving further.
School life. Students at break time!

Int: How do you help your students achieve this competence in your teaching method?
Me: I usually begin the new topic with a short review of the previous learning, emphasizing the relevance of the previous to the next. Generally, I like to make use of the demonstration method, where I solicit ideas from them to be written on the board. After having enough information, we go through the process of eliminating irrelevant ideas. For example in making an effective topic sentence, I try to give my example first based on their given ideas. It is then their turn to connect pieces of information to create an idea. After about three or four examples, the lecture explaining the rules will follow.
When the task is too difficult for the individual class member, I usually make use of the cooperative method where they choose a partner to accomplish the given activity.  
Personally, since most of my students are not perfectly independent, I make sure they don’t hesitate to ask questions. While brainstorming for the task, I usually go around from one group to another giving my opinion on the topics they show. This I think, coupled with praises and some short recap of the rules, will most likely result in good performances for the tasks.

Int: What learning activities do your students engage with in order to develop this competence?
Me: I make use of timed freewriting to gather ideas they have in mind without looking at their seatmate’s work. After this, I give them time to exchange paper for the other person to point what they think is the most interesting idea.  After they have “the most interesting idea”, it is time to formulate an outline to be able to develop the idea smoothly.
Other activities I engage my students in are the classroom-based interview, descriptive writing, cause and effect writing, and quoting or paraphrasing an author’s words. In most cases, I provide some visual aids like pictures or magazine articles.

Int: How do you assess whether they achieved this competence?
Me: I usually make a checklist or rubric for the class activity. Before the task or homework is given, I make sure they understand the expected outcome. I assess their achievement by grading their work according to the assigned points in the checklist/rubric.
When I return the paper, I usually give comments or clarify the rules not followed.

I: How do your students know if they achieved this competence? If not, why they have not achieved it?
Me: I make sure I breakdown the points of the paper based on the checklist. As much as possible, I make use of the editing symbols for correction, so when my students have their paper back, they usually think the more symbols, the lower the score. The lower the score in one area, the more they need improvement there. My students think this is the simplest way to determine their weak and strong points.
Picture anyone? All smiles during the class break.

Int: What are their common problems in learning the subject?
Me: The students have problems with vocabulary and grammar.
I have one student who wrote, “There are many sands in our community”, when sand is non-count.  Another wrote, “Our town is very welcoming to terrorist” when she meant, tourists.
The most common problem is the subject-verb agreement, the usage of has, have, had, and do, does, and did.
There is also a bigger issue with the tenses of the verb. (They said there are only three tenses that exist.) Some don’t even know the difference between “active and passive voices”.
Sad to say, there are students who still have difficulty spelling the words.  

Int: What motivates your students to learn?
Me: Most students will likely to perform better if you give compliments. I usually do this with those having low self-confidence.
For those who perform well in class, I usually persuade them to do more challenging topics. I assess the work, focusing more on the technicality, and of course, praises. Students who always excel in class are motivated by not having the perfect score at all times.
Slow or fast learner, they are motivated to learn when given examples or asked to compose something realistic. I usually give examples using a class member’s name or situation( of course, taking into consideration the sensitivity of the issue.) The funnier the example, the more relaxed they are, which in turn, the better and faster they learn and retain information.
Presentation day: My student explaining his

Int: As a teacher, what are your difficulties encountered in teaching English as a subject?
Me: As a writing teacher, the biggest challenge for me is to squeeze ideas from students. Most of my students are not wide readers, and this results to poor background in vocabulary, style, and even basic knowledge. I always find myself telling them to at least find some books of their interest and start reading.
Second, many students are poor in grammar. This usually leads to difficulty understanding the written ideas. Many take grammar for granted, thinking that being able to follow twang can cover it up.
Third difficulty is the inability of the students to pronounce or spell words correctly. Many are used to attending English classes speaking the language with the “Filipino accent” or spelling words like in SMS.
Lastly, with their weakness in vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar, many hesitate to speak for the fear of being laughed at.