Sunday, May 12, 2013

The Importance of Learning How to Build A Ship

Alvior, Arnel 
Molato, Razel John 
Para-onda, Jelord
Rendon, Resan John

BS Marine Engineering 

I. Introduction
                The basic idea of learning is that it is a day by day process of acquiring knowledge and information that is taught to us whether by a person, the society we live in and the experiences we have. Having the knowledge on a certain thing gives us a greater advantage over others for it gives us the sense of confidence and pride so as we, as an individual can perform the role we are playing in this life in the most effecient as we can. As a student, it is a given fact that we come to school to learn the basic things in life as well as the complicated life. Learning hones us to be a better individual someday and a more competitive person as we all know that we are now in the time of modernization, we must not let ourselves be left out.
                So, how important is it to know how to build a ship? Basically, as a marine engineering student, it is a must to learn the process of ship building because for the fact that we are actually here to study about the processes and procedures as well as all about the marine stffs. Knowing how a ship is built makes us understand it better. But before that, let us first define what a ship is.
                Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant watercraft. It is distinguished from a boat based on size and cargo as well as the passenger capacity. It is used in various activities such as transporting people or goods across the lakes, seas and rivers.  It is also use for fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. Historically, a "ship" was a vessel with sails rigged in a specific manner. In armed conflict and in daily life they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate vessels for combat and to transport and support forces ashore.
                If we were to go back to history, we'll see that ships were a key in great explorations and scientific and technological development. It became a medium for exchange and trade from all over the world. Also, ship have been use as a means of transportation for such purpose as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. New crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world's population growth after the 16th century. Maritime transport has shaped the world's economy into today's energy-intensive pattern.

II. Body
                Building a ship can be one of the most difficult things to build. To have a good output, one must first plan for the design of the ship you are to build and what you want to do. Planning is really one of the most important things for us to ensure good outcome and results in anything we do. At this point, we must already have that idea of what would it look like once it's done.  Not only a photographic idea but we must also consider other things that are essential in building a ship. First is the capacity or if the company or certain person is capable for providing the financial aspects that would cover all the expenses that we are to use in the whole duration of our construction. The materials we should use and the workforce we need in order to finish building our ship at the scheduled time we set.
                In building a ship, we can divide the work into 4 different sections: the Bow (front), the stern (back), the remainder of the hull (body of the ship) and all the other details, like masts, flags, and others. According to the minescraft org., The front and back of the ship are often the most difficult parts to build, as they’re round and generally odd looking.
                There are different types of a Ship and for each type; there is a different way on how to build it because it is to perform on different functions. Ships are divided according to how it is used for. Here are some common types of ship.
Troop-ships - their purpose is to carry freight and passengers.
a. General-cargo ships - Once the most popular type, nowadays general-cargo ships are still built but in small quantities. They usually have spacious holds which occupy the larger part of the hull.
b. Specialized ships - the cargo is carefully distributed according to its type and requirement of special conditions:
  *Reefer - they transport perishable foods such as fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and dairy, having a carrying capacity of 8,000 - 12,000 t. They sail at a speed of 18-22 knots which is higher than that of the common general-cargo ships because these perishable goods require faster delivery.
   *Timber carriers - one-decked ships designed to carry logs and beams; carrying capacity - 5,000 - 20,000 t, speed - 13-15 knots.
    *Containerships - carrying capacity - 8,000-15,000 t on average and 25,000-30,000 t for big containerships. They are classified as unit-load ships because freight is carried in huge boxes of standard size (units), usually from 10 to 40 t. Containerships are said to have made a revolution in the history of water transport.                 
 *Barge-carrying ships (lighter ships) -This type is quite similar of that of the category of containerships but the principle is slightly different. Cargo is carried in floating containers, also referred to as barges or lighters, each with a carrying capacity of 375 t - 1050 t. As these barges cannot sail on their own, they need to be tugged or towed to the ship. There, they can be loaded aboard in different ways depending on the type of lighter ship. The advantage of this type of ships is that cargo can be carried in separate barges to and from smaller ports through a series of rivers and canals that are inaccessible for big ships.
  *Ro-ro ships - used for transporting motor vehicles and other wheeled equipment. Ro-ro is short for roll-on roll-off ships and is thus called because cargo is carried on wheeled containers or trailers. Ro-ro ships sail at an average speed of 22 knots.  Ro-ro ships usually have 2-6 decks and look like huge parking lots with stern openings and lifting platforms to sort out trailers.  Modern car carriers are capable of carrying about 6,500 automobiles.
       *Bulk-carriers (bulkers) - designed to carry loose goods which constitute about 70% of all the shipments carried by sea; speed - 14 - 16 knots, carrying capacity - varies (there are ships with 30,000 t and others with 150,000 t); It is usually one-decked, with an engine room in the stern and a deckhouse above it. The holds are constructed with longitudinal and cross walls (called "bulkheads") and the cargo is easily stowed according to them. Bulk cargo is a wide term. Heavy bulk-carriers usually transport ore , coal and coke, building materials, such as cement and gravel. Light bulkers carry grain, salt and sugar.
     *Heavy-cargo ships - designed to carry cranes, oil drills, machinery for factories and power stations, equipment for heavy industry and other cargo weighing 700-1000 t.
                 These are just some types of Ships with their functions. The internal make-up of a ship is basically based on what functions it will carry. For a better performance of a ship, it's parts must be according to it's function. So, what are the parts of a ship? Here are some basic parts of ship that we must be familiar of.
  First, we have the anchor. It is a large hook attached to the ship which is cast overboard and digs into the sea bed to keep the ship from moving. Then, we have the bow which is the front of the vessel which is basically one of the hardest parts to do along with the back part. Hull, on the other hand is the body of the ship. As it implies, it covers the majority part of the ship. Next, we have the keel or the timber at the bottom of the hull that runs the bow to the stern. It is often referred to as the ship's "backbone". Then we have the mast which is a large wooden spar used to hold other spars and rigging, the lines that supports the masts and move the sails. Another part is the port; it is the left side of the ship when you are facing the bow. The right side of the ship is called the starboard. Then we have the rudder, a blade attached under the stern which is use for steering. Spars are long pieces of woods which supports sails and the rigging. The horizontal spar that holds a square sail is called the yards. Lastly, the back of a vessel is referred to as the stern.
                Now we know what are the basic parts of ships and some of its type, we can now learn some steps in building a ship. We already know that the front and the back part of the ship is the hardest thing to build. So, we can start by either the front or the middle part or by building the entire framework first. But before we decide what to do first, we must determine the size of the ship so we can determine how wide the bottom is and to where we will always start.
Bow (front)
In building the bow or the front part of the ship, it is often best to create first the general shape for you totake out blocks and make it look more aquadynamic and better to look at since the front of the ship is a bit tricky, as it’s round and pointy. It is really good to start by first finding or making the center part of the ship. This will serve as the lowest point that is our reference when we build up the remainder n the front.
After you build the middle of the ship, slowly build your way up to the highest desired height. This must be done slowly until we are halfway of our desired height where in we can already increase your speed. Once you’ve reached the desired height, it’s time to start building from this point towards the sides. Begin on 1 side and slowly work your way towards the desired width of the boat, but make sure you don’t make it too wide or not wide enough.
Stern (back)

                The stern is a little  easier. Start first with creating the anchor; this is the part that keeps the ship from moving. Then, connect the bottom of the ship to the bottom of the ship. After you have connected it to the ship, it’s time to build upwards to make the back part of the ship. The top part can also stick out a little on all sides, which will also help making it look less flat and plain. This is also where the cabins reside.
Hull (body)
                This is the easiest part among the three especially if you have already started with either the bow or the stern. You just simply continue to extend until you’ve reached your desired length. However, if you’re starting with the hull, building it will still be quite easy. You start by creating the middle, which is just a long line of blocks. Then determine how wide you want your ship to be and slowly work your way towards that height and width. Don’t increase the height too fast, or it’ll look very weird.
Once you’ve completed the entire body of the ship it’s time to add details. This will once again depends on the type of ship you’re making, a pirateship will usually have sails, while a steampunk style ship might have a hot air balloon with huge propellors.
One detail that will look good on pretty much all ships is a few layers in a different block. A ship made entirely out of wooden planks looks quite plain, so replace a few layers with logs or differently coloured planks.
You may also add fences on the edges, both to prevent people from falling off and as a way to make them ship look better. Don’t forget to leave some openings to allow people to go on and off board.
                Then, you can already patch up your work by adding finishing touches as painting and stuffs of that kind.


Anti-Smoking Ordinance Implemented In Iloilo City

Emmanuel Dayal
BS Criminology 

Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco, is burned and the smoke is tasted or inhaled. This is primarily practiced as a route of administration for recreational, as combustion releases the active substances in drugs such as nicotine and makes them available for absorption through the lungs. It can also be done as a part of rituals, to induce trances and spiritual enlightenment. The most common method of smoking today is through cigarettes, primarily industrially manufactured but also hand-rolled from loose tobacco and rolling paper. Other smoking implements include pipes, cigars, vaporizers, and bongs. It has been suggested that smoking-related disease kills one half of all long term smokers but these diseases may also be contracted by non-smokers. A 2007 report states that about 4.9 million people worldwide each year die as a result of smoking.
Anti-smoking ordinance in Iloilo city is the policy of the city of Iloilo to protect the health of the citizens from the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoke and instill health consciousness. Pursuant to this policy, the city of Iloilo has enacted various anti-smoking ordinances, upon passage of the R.A. 9211 otherwise known as the “Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003”, there is need to review, revise and consolidate all Anti-Smoking Ordinances of the City of Iloilo. Pursuant to the exercise of its police power, Section 16 and 177 of the local Government Code of 1991, it is duty of the City of Iloilo to adopt ordinances shall be necessary to fully provide for and protect the health, safety, comfort, conveniences, and general welfare of the community and its inhabitants.

 Designated smoking and non-smoking area, In all enclosed places included in section 5.2 which do not opt to declare their establishments or places as totally free from smoking may expose a person other than the smoker to tobacco smoke, the owner, proprietor, possessor, manager or administrator of such places shall establish smoking and non-smoking area. Such areas may include a designated area within a building, which may be in an open space or separated area with the proper ventilation, but shall not located within the same room that has been designated as a non-smoking area. Standards for designated smoking area  are being duly designated other than in open space, whether tourism accredited or not, within the territorial jurisdiction of Iloilo City as above defined, has strictly observed the following standards. The places or establishments that are air conditioned has established and designated their smoking area that is not more than one-fourth of the total area of the place or establishment. The area is totally enclose on all side and separated from the rest of the premises where smoking is prohibited. They have equipped it with an exhaust fan and with adequate ventilation in conformity with provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1096, otherwise known as the “National Building Code” and the Philippine Society of the Mechanical Engineers Code”. The place or establishment is not air condition, have established and designate a smoking area that is not more than one fourth of the total area of the public places or establishment. It was fully ventilated and separated from the rest of the premises where smoking is prohibited. Signage for designated smoking and non-smoking areas, all designated smoking area have at least one legible and visible sign post saying “SMOKING AREA” in English or Filipino for the information and guidance of all concerned.

Non-smoking has at least one legible and visible sign posted saying “NON-SMOKING AREA” or “NO SMOKING” English or Filipino for the guidance of all concerned. The signs was been placed conspicuously at the entrance of the designated smoking and non-smoking area. No circumstance has any mark, device, word or any image associated with anti-Tobacco Company has been included in any of these sign and materials. The City Health Office and City Engineer’s Office was been task to inspect and certify the appropriateness of the designated smoking areas, taking into consideration the purpose of the law which is to protect non-smokers from the pernicious effects of tobacco smoke. The Iloilo City Anti-Smoking Task Force (ICAST) in coordination with the City Engineer’s Office and the City Tourism Office (in case accredited tourism establishment) have conducted an ocular inspection of all accredited and non-accredited tourism establishment in Iloilo City to determine compliance with the requirement of this Ordinance.
Prior to the penalty of the violators to the ordinance, the penalty to an individual who violated the ordinance in public places, school premises, 10 meters away from the entrance of the school, public utility vehicle, fast food chain, public market, mall, and other establishments that is included in the jurisdiction of the said ordinance  has been penalized accordingly. First offense was a fine of 500 pesos; second offense was 1,000 pesos, on the third offense and subsequent offenses was a fine of 5,000 pesos. The person that was caught has been issued a ticket by the ICAST agent, after which, the person will go to the City treasurer’s office and pay the corresponding amount and the level of offence.

The ICAST is a group created to help the City mayor monitor, implement and enforce the provisions of the Ordinance. ICAST is under the Office of the City mayor and subject to the direct control and supervision. In accordance to the implementation of the ordinance, there is an ICAST BOARD that serves as the strategy-formulating body of ICAST.  The ICAST BOARD is composed of a Chairperson and exactly twenty members that have been appointed by the City Mayor. Addition to the persons involved in the implementation of the ordinance, the City Mayor has appointed and deputized many of individuals that he deem necessary, such as students, vendors, police officers, young professionals, and other person that wishes to be a deputized agent of ICAST that’s serves as the enforcement arm of ICAST, in order to maximize the number of the person involve in the formulation and implementation of the ordinance. All the deputize agent is warring an ICAST uniform with an identification card in order  that they will be recognize and will warn the people that is going to violate the ordinance. They were scattered and designated all throughout the city of Iloilo to manage and maintain the healthy condition of a smoke free area in their respective designations. There was nothing that have been constructed as to limit the power of the City Mayor to implement and execute the provision of the Ordinance pursuant to Local Government Code and other existing laws.

The City Mayor has formulated the implementing rules and regulations of the said ordinance, for the effective implementation of the ordinance within 15 days from the day of affectivity in the public places, school premises, 10 meters away from the entrance of the school, public utility vehicle, fast food chain, public market, mall, and other establishments all trough out the City of Iloilo that is included in the jurisdiction of the said ordinance. Immediately, all the deputize agents was being dispatched to their respective designation all trough out the city of Iloilo, in accordance to the immediate implementation of the anti-smoking ordinance that keeps ilonggo away from the harmful effect of second hand smoke and to maintain the smoke free state of the city. The criminal case pending before City Prosecutors Office and the Municipal Trial Court for violations of the previous Anti-Smoking Ordinance have not been dismissed; however the provision of the ordinance was applied to those accused when the same is favorable to them. The amount necessary to implement the provision of the ordinance has been charged against the current year’s appropriation such funds that maybe necessary for the continued implementation of the ordinance has been included in the budget. For any reasons, any part or provision of the ordinance has been declared unconstitutional or invalid; the other parts of the provision that was not affected has been continued to be in full force and effect. The ordinance has taken its effect 15 days after its approval and publication in a newspaper of a general circulation in the City of Iloilo consistent with the provision of the Local Government Code of 1991.

Anti-smoking ordinance in Iloilo city is one of the successful policies of the city of Iloilo to protect the health of the citizens from the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoke and instill health consciousness. The ordinance was being implemented effectively due to the lower rate not just the smoking violators but also the rater of the diseases caused by second hand smoking also decreases and hopefully will be terminated to in the following years as the ICAST and the Iloilo City government continue to implement and manage the entire city as smoke free City.   
Since it has been approved and implemented Pursuant to this policy, the city of Iloilo has enacted various anti-smoking ordinances, upon passage of the R.A. 9211 otherwise known as the “Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003”, there is need to review, revise and consolidate all Anti-Smoking Ordinances of the City of Iloilo. Pursuant to the exercise of its police power, Section 16 and 177 of the local Government Code of 1991, it is duty of the City of Iloilo to adopt ordinances shall be necessary to fully provide for and protect the health, safety, comfort, conveniences, and general welfare of the community and its inhabitants.


“Accidents Onboard: What Might Be The Reasons Accidents Happen?”

Palomar, Jun Vieril 
Jardeleza, Jerson 
Malan, Nelson 
Basa, Devy

Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering

Now in our country, we have been suffering so many crises that have never been resolved. One of the most difficult and anyone can’t avoid even the people that have stable job is financial crises. Financial problem is the main problem of most of people here in the Philippines. Especially those people who are living in smaller islands and far from early civilization.

 In these islands there are so many new high school graduates who have different dreams for their family and for their future life. But all of those dreams never come true because of financial problem. There is some who stopped dreaming and contented on what they have but, there is also some who pursue and continue to reach their goals in their own life. So, in order to reach their goals, they made an agreement between them as brothers and sisters, an agreement that they will help each other. The elder sister will have to work in order to send her brother to college. The brother decided to take a maritime course because nowadays seafaring is one of the powerful sources of economy in the world. As a matter of fact, Filipino seafarers are very in demand in seafaring because of their good performances in any types of merchant vessels. So, if he will succeed, he is not only helping his family to lift up from poverty but also he help lessens financial crisis in our country.
 Although, seafarers are earning a lot of money, they are also in high risk to maritime accidents like fire, collision of ships, grounding, and the most risky one, the abandon ship accident. Many seafarers hesitate to go onboard a particular ship because of those accidents. Working onboard can assure everyone on becoming successful, so, there is some who continue and take the risk of all accidents that will happen on ships. Accidents sometimes happen anytime to all of us and sometimes we can avoid it but almost us we cannot.
Being a seafarer is like playing a risky game. Before you win, you will be exposed into dangers. It is just normal. For them, working onboard guarantees them to triumphant, but most of them are worrying on their safety due to different accidents happening aboard ship. What might be the reasons why these often happen onboard? Why there are accidents onboard while some says that seafaring is a safe work? These questions were often heard from many. So as future seafarers, we are one of the others who are trying to search for the answers of these questions.

Accidents are already a part of life of any person as well as seafarers. Many ships had been destroyed because of these devastating accidents. According to Siglos, the major contributor of accidents, which claimed many lives and great financial lost to the owners, is the human error. It is almost 80% of all accidents that happened on seas. It includes negligence, lack of training, and fatigue on some crews that manned a particular ship. Negligence and lack training contributes fewer compared to the most surprising one that is fatigue on crews. Fatigue has the most contribution on accidents caused by human errors because of lack of sleep and rest periods. When they are fatigue, they can’t do other task those in times of emergency, they can’t move alertly to different situations because of tired body.

In the report of other researchers, human factor is the cause of 80% maritime accidents. This human factor includes active human factor and latent human factor. The most horrible thing that was reported is that 80% of the 80% human factor is caused by latent human factor. Latent human factor is ships shore-based management that gives orders for the ship but the results of their own actions are not urgent and it takes some time it would be gathered up. But why this is one of the main cause? This is because of fault to orders coming from them and an error to the transfer of commands from higher ranking officers to rating personnel. The remaining 20% of the 80%human factor that causes accidents is the active human factor. This is the working crew members responsible for maintaining the safe voyage of the ship.

On other hand, according to different articles in the internet and books, we discovered the reasons why accident happen onboard are human behavior, machinery or equipment problems, weather condition, personnel’s status, ship management and unnoticed liquid spillage.

The different articles articulate that human behavior or attitude while on cruise contribute to dangers on voyage of ship. The behavior of many ship crew mainly the cause of accidents like fire, explosion, collision and many other accidents while on voyage. Even the careless throwing of lighted matches or cigarette filters of the crew can be a cause of fire or explosion especially to chemical tankers and cargo ships. Since the substances transported by these merchant ships are flammable chemicals, a minor explosion have bigger chances to major explosion and might result to abandonment of ship. Alcohol and drug abuses of workers are also a major problem in seafaring industry. If the worker got engaged to alcohol and prohibited drug abuse, he became addicted and could cause him to behave involuntarily. A person that is high on drugs cannot control his own actions. It can lead to serious accidents onboard. Negligence while on duty, lack of good housekeeping and ignorance of smaller problems are also main contributors of accidents onboard. Ignoring even a small leak or spillage on floors and tanks can result to serious injury on your own and among fellow crew members. According to our teacher, he also said that human error is the reason of accidents while onboard. In his examples, he explains that negligence of the crew on radar devices while on duty in the ship’s bridge results to collision.

Another reason of accident onboard is caused by machinery or equipment problems. Sometimes there are accidents in which the cause is loosening spare parts of different equipments. It can result to malfunctions and can harm crew members who operate certain equipment. Crane operations onboard are often used because of heavy cargoes carried by the ship. Crane mishaps are very risky when it comes to transfer of cargoes that can harm workers. The strains on ropes and wires on cranes and mooring devices on the ship is not a small problem because when neglected, the outcome is injury. Jamming doors and splintered edges of woodwork can cause cuts and bruises. Minor structure deficiencies, this minor things doesn’t given much attention for it is just smaller problems, but soon this grows into huge one and become their major problem.

Weather conditions are also a problem to seafaring. The sinking of M/V princess of the Stars in 2008 was caused by bad weather condition. The false detailed movement of the storm was the reason of its sinking. While maneuvering on foggy waters, the suggestions of many seafarers are to take a full watch to radar devices in order to prevent collision with other vessels.

As we searched, personnel’s status also got a big contribution to some accidents. There are personnel that even in the old age; they are still working as ratings in different ships. In that age, they still do harder tasks and heavy works on their duties that in cases of emergencies, they tardily move and cannot take immediate actions. The different nationality of crew is also a cause of some accidents. Different races of the workers made them harder to communicate with each other especially in risky operations.

As we mentioned earlier, the ship management is one big reason of maritime accidents. The changes in ships of the shipping companies are another reason of accidents because of unfamiliarity of crew to the location of ships devices and controls. The first time of the crew to get onboard a particular ship is another reason in which he should first familiarize all the locations of equipments and devices.

Accidents are also caused by liquid spillage, fuel leakages on tanks, spilled combustible liquid on floors and also the overflowing bilge water. Fuel and combustible liquid leakages can cause fire in the ship. Fuel can easily catch heat and it may ignite and cause fire. Overflowing of bilge water is another reason why many engine workers got injured due to slips and neglected wet surfaces on engine floors.

Even though there is a big money to seafaring, still it is coupled with accidents when not cautious in actions.  To realize the dream of making shipping safer at times, we must bear in mind our own safety. The crew members shall have their own knowledge, skills, and training required to their task, and is a safety conscious person at all times.
As future seafarers, we are trying to locate answers for the problems in seafaring. We are preparing ourselves for the next journey of our life, that to become an engine officer. If you want to become one of us, be prepared on yourself. Try to know what lies beyond your future. Search, Read, And Understand.