Sunday, May 12, 2013

The Importance of Learning How to Build A Ship

Alvior, Arnel 
Molato, Razel John 
Para-onda, Jelord
Rendon, Resan John

BS Marine Engineering 

I. Introduction
                The basic idea of learning is that it is a day by day process of acquiring knowledge and information that is taught to us whether by a person, the society we live in and the experiences we have. Having the knowledge on a certain thing gives us a greater advantage over others for it gives us the sense of confidence and pride so as we, as an individual can perform the role we are playing in this life in the most effecient as we can. As a student, it is a given fact that we come to school to learn the basic things in life as well as the complicated life. Learning hones us to be a better individual someday and a more competitive person as we all know that we are now in the time of modernization, we must not let ourselves be left out.
                So, how important is it to know how to build a ship? Basically, as a marine engineering student, it is a must to learn the process of ship building because for the fact that we are actually here to study about the processes and procedures as well as all about the marine stffs. Knowing how a ship is built makes us understand it better. But before that, let us first define what a ship is.
                Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant watercraft. It is distinguished from a boat based on size and cargo as well as the passenger capacity. It is used in various activities such as transporting people or goods across the lakes, seas and rivers.  It is also use for fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. Historically, a "ship" was a vessel with sails rigged in a specific manner. In armed conflict and in daily life they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate vessels for combat and to transport and support forces ashore.
                If we were to go back to history, we'll see that ships were a key in great explorations and scientific and technological development. It became a medium for exchange and trade from all over the world. Also, ship have been use as a means of transportation for such purpose as colonization and the slave trade, and have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. New crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world's population growth after the 16th century. Maritime transport has shaped the world's economy into today's energy-intensive pattern.

II. Body
                Building a ship can be one of the most difficult things to build. To have a good output, one must first plan for the design of the ship you are to build and what you want to do. Planning is really one of the most important things for us to ensure good outcome and results in anything we do. At this point, we must already have that idea of what would it look like once it's done.  Not only a photographic idea but we must also consider other things that are essential in building a ship. First is the capacity or if the company or certain person is capable for providing the financial aspects that would cover all the expenses that we are to use in the whole duration of our construction. The materials we should use and the workforce we need in order to finish building our ship at the scheduled time we set.
                In building a ship, we can divide the work into 4 different sections: the Bow (front), the stern (back), the remainder of the hull (body of the ship) and all the other details, like masts, flags, and others. According to the minescraft org., The front and back of the ship are often the most difficult parts to build, as they’re round and generally odd looking.
                There are different types of a Ship and for each type; there is a different way on how to build it because it is to perform on different functions. Ships are divided according to how it is used for. Here are some common types of ship.
Troop-ships - their purpose is to carry freight and passengers.
a. General-cargo ships - Once the most popular type, nowadays general-cargo ships are still built but in small quantities. They usually have spacious holds which occupy the larger part of the hull.
b. Specialized ships - the cargo is carefully distributed according to its type and requirement of special conditions:
  *Reefer - they transport perishable foods such as fruit, vegetables, meat, fish and dairy, having a carrying capacity of 8,000 - 12,000 t. They sail at a speed of 18-22 knots which is higher than that of the common general-cargo ships because these perishable goods require faster delivery.
   *Timber carriers - one-decked ships designed to carry logs and beams; carrying capacity - 5,000 - 20,000 t, speed - 13-15 knots.
    *Containerships - carrying capacity - 8,000-15,000 t on average and 25,000-30,000 t for big containerships. They are classified as unit-load ships because freight is carried in huge boxes of standard size (units), usually from 10 to 40 t. Containerships are said to have made a revolution in the history of water transport.                 
 *Barge-carrying ships (lighter ships) -This type is quite similar of that of the category of containerships but the principle is slightly different. Cargo is carried in floating containers, also referred to as barges or lighters, each with a carrying capacity of 375 t - 1050 t. As these barges cannot sail on their own, they need to be tugged or towed to the ship. There, they can be loaded aboard in different ways depending on the type of lighter ship. The advantage of this type of ships is that cargo can be carried in separate barges to and from smaller ports through a series of rivers and canals that are inaccessible for big ships.
  *Ro-ro ships - used for transporting motor vehicles and other wheeled equipment. Ro-ro is short for roll-on roll-off ships and is thus called because cargo is carried on wheeled containers or trailers. Ro-ro ships sail at an average speed of 22 knots.  Ro-ro ships usually have 2-6 decks and look like huge parking lots with stern openings and lifting platforms to sort out trailers.  Modern car carriers are capable of carrying about 6,500 automobiles.
       *Bulk-carriers (bulkers) - designed to carry loose goods which constitute about 70% of all the shipments carried by sea; speed - 14 - 16 knots, carrying capacity - varies (there are ships with 30,000 t and others with 150,000 t); It is usually one-decked, with an engine room in the stern and a deckhouse above it. The holds are constructed with longitudinal and cross walls (called "bulkheads") and the cargo is easily stowed according to them. Bulk cargo is a wide term. Heavy bulk-carriers usually transport ore , coal and coke, building materials, such as cement and gravel. Light bulkers carry grain, salt and sugar.
     *Heavy-cargo ships - designed to carry cranes, oil drills, machinery for factories and power stations, equipment for heavy industry and other cargo weighing 700-1000 t.
                 These are just some types of Ships with their functions. The internal make-up of a ship is basically based on what functions it will carry. For a better performance of a ship, it's parts must be according to it's function. So, what are the parts of a ship? Here are some basic parts of ship that we must be familiar of.
  First, we have the anchor. It is a large hook attached to the ship which is cast overboard and digs into the sea bed to keep the ship from moving. Then, we have the bow which is the front of the vessel which is basically one of the hardest parts to do along with the back part. Hull, on the other hand is the body of the ship. As it implies, it covers the majority part of the ship. Next, we have the keel or the timber at the bottom of the hull that runs the bow to the stern. It is often referred to as the ship's "backbone". Then we have the mast which is a large wooden spar used to hold other spars and rigging, the lines that supports the masts and move the sails. Another part is the port; it is the left side of the ship when you are facing the bow. The right side of the ship is called the starboard. Then we have the rudder, a blade attached under the stern which is use for steering. Spars are long pieces of woods which supports sails and the rigging. The horizontal spar that holds a square sail is called the yards. Lastly, the back of a vessel is referred to as the stern.
                Now we know what are the basic parts of ships and some of its type, we can now learn some steps in building a ship. We already know that the front and the back part of the ship is the hardest thing to build. So, we can start by either the front or the middle part or by building the entire framework first. But before we decide what to do first, we must determine the size of the ship so we can determine how wide the bottom is and to where we will always start.
Bow (front)
In building the bow or the front part of the ship, it is often best to create first the general shape for you totake out blocks and make it look more aquadynamic and better to look at since the front of the ship is a bit tricky, as it’s round and pointy. It is really good to start by first finding or making the center part of the ship. This will serve as the lowest point that is our reference when we build up the remainder n the front.
After you build the middle of the ship, slowly build your way up to the highest desired height. This must be done slowly until we are halfway of our desired height where in we can already increase your speed. Once you’ve reached the desired height, it’s time to start building from this point towards the sides. Begin on 1 side and slowly work your way towards the desired width of the boat, but make sure you don’t make it too wide or not wide enough.
Stern (back)

                The stern is a little  easier. Start first with creating the anchor; this is the part that keeps the ship from moving. Then, connect the bottom of the ship to the bottom of the ship. After you have connected it to the ship, it’s time to build upwards to make the back part of the ship. The top part can also stick out a little on all sides, which will also help making it look less flat and plain. This is also where the cabins reside.
Hull (body)
                This is the easiest part among the three especially if you have already started with either the bow or the stern. You just simply continue to extend until you’ve reached your desired length. However, if you’re starting with the hull, building it will still be quite easy. You start by creating the middle, which is just a long line of blocks. Then determine how wide you want your ship to be and slowly work your way towards that height and width. Don’t increase the height too fast, or it’ll look very weird.
Once you’ve completed the entire body of the ship it’s time to add details. This will once again depends on the type of ship you’re making, a pirateship will usually have sails, while a steampunk style ship might have a hot air balloon with huge propellors.
One detail that will look good on pretty much all ships is a few layers in a different block. A ship made entirely out of wooden planks looks quite plain, so replace a few layers with logs or differently coloured planks.
You may also add fences on the edges, both to prevent people from falling off and as a way to make them ship look better. Don’t forget to leave some openings to allow people to go on and off board.
                Then, you can already patch up your work by adding finishing touches as painting and stuffs of that kind.


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